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First, before test administration there has been no official meeting - named ‘the standardisation meeting ’ by Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995)- for discussion and agreement on how to mark each question/task among the group of assessors. Perhaps the administrators here tend to think the assessors, as language teachers, must obviously know how to fully elicit the students’ oral proficiency, so they do not need to be informed of what to do during the test. Even when the assessors can be aware of the importance of this meeting, they are unable to hold it. It is partially because the staff’s insufficient knowledge of oral testing cannot help them to design an appropriate marking key and a reasonable description of mark categories with a mark criterion.

Therefore, before test administration, a marking key and a mark criterion for mark categories are first needed from test designers, and then a considerable amount of time must be spent on discussion to reach agreement on the way to mark each question/task. Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.112) maintain, ‘although this is likely to be expensive, it is the safest way of ensuring that enough discussion will take place for all examiners to understand thoroughly the level scale and the procedures for scoring.’ All these things aim at assuring reliability of an achievement speaking test.

Second, Table 4.3 reveals that, during the students’ test performance, interaction hardly existed between the assessors and the test takers or students apart from 2 students out of 10. These two students were asked 1 or 2 questions. Moreover, the duration of these 10 students’ test performance varies 2 minutes on average. As discussed in 2.1- Chapter 2, spoken language has two functions, interactional and transactional, which are both necessarily incorporated into a speaking test. In fact, in most of the oral tests in use at TNU, namely the achievement test mentioned above, the students are expected to merely produce transactional instances of the language. Can such tests be considered to be able to measure test takers’ or students’ overall oral proficiency? The answer is surely no because they reveals no interactive communication. This also means that the assessors gave scores just on the students’ presentation, which also surely indicates a lack of validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Last but not least, as regards a supportive testing environment the oral tests were almost administered in noisy rooms. Students should be put at ease before and during their performance, which can increase their confidence. Bachman&Palmer (1996), hence, demonstrate that it is crucial to maintain a supportive environment throughout the test, that is to avoid distractions due to temperature, noise, excessive movement, etc. In order to do this, test administrators and assessors are to be in control of techniques and create an atmosphere which will help each student to feel at ease (Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.116). For those students waiting for their turn should be sitting in a comfortable room, not standing along the corridor and talking so as not to affect the others’ performance.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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