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2.5.2 reliability

If test validity is defined as accuracy of measurement, test reliability is related to consistency of measurement. A reliable test score will be consistent across different characteristics of the testing situation. Unless test scores are relatively consistent, they cannot give any information at all about the ability measured. Another aspect of overall test reliability is rater reliability. Raters must maintain consistency in their own marking standards. This kind of reliability is called intra-marker reliability (Underhill, 1987). Or the same work marked by different raters should produce similar results, which is named inter-marker also by Underhill. If some raters rate more severely than others, the ratings of different raters are not consistent, and the scores obtained could not be considered to be reliable. Oral tests belong to the kind calling for subjective judgement on the part of the marker, so the scores awarded in an oral test cannot be believed to always have such high reliability.

It is also necessary to recognize that inconsistencies cannot be eliminated entirely. Nevertheless, it is possible to minimize the effects of the potential sources of inconsistencies under control in test design (Bachman and Palmer, 1996). Amongst factors affecting test performance, the characteristics of the test tasks are partly under control. In language test design and development, thus, it is possible to minimize variations in the test task characteristics that do not correspond to variations in target language tasks.

Test administration also involved in the concept of reliability has not been given proper attention at some universities at the present time. Administrating a test involves exam invigilators and such test conditions as classrooms, equipment, materials, exam rules and procedures dealing with test takers’ cheating.

2.5.3 practicality

Test practicality pertains to ‘the ways in which a test will be implemented, and, to a large degree, whether it will be developed and used at all’ (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 35). It concerns practical matters such as the amount of time, human and material resources available for constructing a test, administering it, marking it, and interpreting the results. If the test resources required for implementing a test exceed the resources available, the test will be impractical. Human resources are a crucial component of test construction and administration involving such individuals as test writers, scorers or raters, and test administrators as well as clerical and technical support personnel. In fact, not all institutions have sufficient staff to be in charge of all these well-defined roles. One person may be in charge of several functions. Test writers, key personnel in the process of test development, are involved not only in writing tests but also in collecting materials, editing and recording. Material resources include space (the number of classrooms, language labs needed), equipment (typewriters, computers, cassette players, overhead projectors), test materials (test booklets, answer sheets, audiotapes). Time consists of test development time and the time required to complete the parts of each stage of the test development process.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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