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To sum up, the analysis of the data collected from the survey shows that TNU English teaching staff have obtained a limited understanding of oral skill assessment. Obviously, their limited and insufficient grasp of oral language testing may probably lead to their low confidence in their scores given on their students’ oral test ability. Also, their improper practices of developing speaking tests critically evaluated in 4.1.3 must be an inevitable consequence of their incomplete perceptions of speaking skill assessment.

4.3 summary

Chapter 4 has described the current process of speaking test development at TNU, presented the results collected from the observation of an end-of-term speaking test and from the survey of the staff’s perceptions of oral language testing. Then the evaluation of the current oral test development process and the analysis of the survey result help to reveal that TNU staff’s superficial knowledge of oral language testing surely results in their inappropriate practices of developing oral language tests. The study has proved to be beneficial as it helps TNU staff to find out their strengths and weaknesses, and they can therefore identify room for improvement.

Chapter 5: recommendations and conclusion

In chapter 4, the results of the study have been presented and analytically discussed in order to find out strengths and weaknesses of TNU oral language testing. The discussion indicates two main findings: first, the current practices are far from being consistent with the theoretical framework of test development, and second, TNU teaching staff have gained limited and insufficient knowledge of oral language testing. These findings serve as the basis for following recommendations regarding standardisation of TNU oral testing practices. This chapter (1) makes several practical recommendations for TNU oral testing practices, and (2) provides a conclusion ending the thesis.

5.1 recommendations for tnu oral testing practices

The findings of the study presented above imply that current oral testing at this institution really need to be improved and standardised in order to gradually increase the training quality of the institution as a whole and of the English Section in particular.

TNU staff’s lack of sufficient competence in speaking skill assessment is one of the main drawbacks resulting in their improper practices of oral test development. Since it is TNU English teaching staff who are, at this institution, the most proficient in English teaching, and directly involved in both the teaching and the testing of speaking skill, it is essential that they be aware of the need to become more competent in developing speaking tests. This thesis recommends using Bachman&Palmer’s framework for test development (See 2.3 – Chapter 2) for the context of oral ability assessment as a theoretical basis for developing speaking tests at TNU.

Based on Bachman&Palmer’s theoretical framework for test development discussed in 2.3 – Chapter 2 – and on the weaknesses of TNU current oral testing practices analysed in Chapter 4, this thesis makes seven particular recommendations, 5 of which are meant to be used to improve the whole present development process of speaking tests, and the other two of which are directly involved in the test operationalization, namely a set of TLU tasks for TNU first-year students and two sample achievement tests for first-year students. This section starts with suggestions for improving the test development process as a whole and ends with practical applications to the operationalization of speaking tests for first-years students.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
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I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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