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Obviously, this popular kind of oral test at TNU is far from being useful in measuring the students’ overall language oral proficiency, and can be said to be lacking in construct validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Secondly, no specifications of particular test task(s), especially specified components of oral ability to be tested, areas of language knowledge adequate and a marking key, to some extent, results in the teachers’ or test designers’ inadequate and useless tests. It can be said that there is lack of consideration of communicative stress in the oral test construction.

As can be seen in four achievement speaking tests (See Appendices 1&2), all the test questions/tasks – topics- are never accompanied with any external prompts helping the students make a structured presentation, and any explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability needed to perform the tasks.

It is extremely necessary for test writers to provide clear instructions helping test takers to organise a spoken presentation for test performance because students are always encouraged to produce effectively organised speech so that the listener finds it easy to catch up with what is being said (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.119).

Also, in order to write test tasks fitting students’ proficiency levels, test writers need really give explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability. The quantification of performance on a particular task much depends on the grading of tasks according to cognitive difficulty (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.121). To put in another way, the same task type can be made easier or more difficult. For example, describing a room with 8 elements is apparently more difficult than a room with 5 elements. Inevitably, test designers or teachers of speaking skill should always bear in mind informed judgements of the degree of this cognitive difficulty or communicative stress (Figure 2.2, Chapter 2) during test operationalization process.

Besides, no official instructions on criteria for marking students’ test performance are presented; thus, the test writers/teachers are unaware of the importance of scoring method(s) for each test task, and they never design a marking key (See 2.4.3, Chapter 2) instructing assessors how to assess students’ performance on test tasks. As discussed in 2.4.3, in a marking key, language and skill categories are identified and awarded separate marks according to test purpose(s). As Underhill (1987, p.94) points out the aim of a marking key is ‘to save time and uncertainty by specifying in advance, as far as possible, how markers should approach the marking of each question or task’. With help of a marking key and a level scale mentioned above, assessors can mark a test more quickly and reliably, for each language or skill category is expected to be separately marked.

  • Test Administration Process

Table 4.1 and 4.3 indicate that TNU speaking test administration reveals many a shortcoming. These weak points include (1) lack of test administration standardisation, (2) lack of reliability in marking test takers’ test performance, and (3) lack of supportive testing environment.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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