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Obviously, this popular kind of oral test at TNU is far from being useful in measuring the students’ overall language oral proficiency, and can be said to be lacking in construct validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Secondly, no specifications of particular test task(s), especially specified components of oral ability to be tested, areas of language knowledge adequate and a marking key, to some extent, results in the teachers’ or test designers’ inadequate and useless tests. It can be said that there is lack of consideration of communicative stress in the oral test construction.

As can be seen in four achievement speaking tests (See Appendices 1&2), all the test questions/tasks – topics- are never accompanied with any external prompts helping the students make a structured presentation, and any explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability needed to perform the tasks.

It is extremely necessary for test writers to provide clear instructions helping test takers to organise a spoken presentation for test performance because students are always encouraged to produce effectively organised speech so that the listener finds it easy to catch up with what is being said (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.119).

Also, in order to write test tasks fitting students’ proficiency levels, test writers need really give explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability. The quantification of performance on a particular task much depends on the grading of tasks according to cognitive difficulty (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.121). To put in another way, the same task type can be made easier or more difficult. For example, describing a room with 8 elements is apparently more difficult than a room with 5 elements. Inevitably, test designers or teachers of speaking skill should always bear in mind informed judgements of the degree of this cognitive difficulty or communicative stress (Figure 2.2, Chapter 2) during test operationalization process.

Besides, no official instructions on criteria for marking students’ test performance are presented; thus, the test writers/teachers are unaware of the importance of scoring method(s) for each test task, and they never design a marking key (See 2.4.3, Chapter 2) instructing assessors how to assess students’ performance on test tasks. As discussed in 2.4.3, in a marking key, language and skill categories are identified and awarded separate marks according to test purpose(s). As Underhill (1987, p.94) points out the aim of a marking key is ‘to save time and uncertainty by specifying in advance, as far as possible, how markers should approach the marking of each question or task’. With help of a marking key and a level scale mentioned above, assessors can mark a test more quickly and reliably, for each language or skill category is expected to be separately marked.

  • Test Administration Process

Table 4.1 and 4.3 indicate that TNU speaking test administration reveals many a shortcoming. These weak points include (1) lack of test administration standardisation, (2) lack of reliability in marking test takers’ test performance, and (3) lack of supportive testing environment.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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