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Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

Northern Estonia was sold by Denmark to German nobles of the Teutonic Knights, who were already pretty well distributed throughout that area. About two centuries of eastward migration of Germans, with the founding of such cities as Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald, Cammin and Kolberg had resulted in the formation of the Hanseatic League in 1358. The bulk of the peasantry in the Baltic States retained their Finno-Ugrian character and there was not any actual military conquest except in Prussia. (Ref. 8 ) In this and the next century the northern seas swarmed with herring and the Hanseatic League (with some strong competition from the Dutch) tended to dominate the commerce. Herring has to be salted within 24 hours of the catch and so this was of ten done at sea with salt imported from the south. The same chemical allowed cabbage to be preserved through the winter and the Baltic lands had a frontier boom, sending timber and grain to the Low Countries. As in most of Europe, however, the Black Death came on the scene in 1350. (Ref. 211 , 137 , 279 )

Early in the century Poland withdrew from a previous short-term Bohemian association and in spite of pressure by the German Knights on the west and north and by Lithuania on the east, Vladislav united Poland into a coherent kingdom with a capital at Cracow. Casimir III, called the Great, continued as a fine administrator, indulging in some territorial exchanges and founding the University of Cracow. In both this and the next century, Poland's internal strife was perpetually between kings attempting unification and nobles trying to establish more of an oligarchy type of government. Externally Poland pushed alternately against the Teutonic Knights northward, trying to get to the Baltic, and southeast toward the Black Sea. As a result of a dynastic agreement in 1370, Louis of Hungary became the Polish king and reigned until his death about 1382. The Poles then accepted Louis' younger daughter, Jadwiga, and married her to Jagiello of Lithuania, at which time they separated from Hungary. Beginning in this century the Poles used their rivers for transportation of great rafts carrying wood to the Baltic Sea. Like other European medieval cities, Prague was a walled, self-contained unit, but occasionally it was necessary to move the walls to allow for growth. (Ref. 260 )

NOTE: Insert Map 74. Lithuania and Poland 13th-14th Centuries

Lithuania was the largest territorial state of 14th century Europe and Gedymin (1316- 1341) and Olgierd (1345-1377) of the Gedimimas family were the real founders of that nation. Blocked by the Germans on the Baltic, they took advantage of the weakness of the Russian principalities to extend control to the east and south by acquiring Polotsk, Minsk and the middle Dnieper region, with Vilno as the capital of the state. Several times Olgierd advanced to the very outskirts of Moscow and he extended his domains to the Black Sea, where he defeated the resident Tatars, re-establishing an extensive realm that had been occupied in prehistoric times by the Baltic Galindas. The Lithuanians were people that had originated in the upper Dnieper basin and mixed with Lappons, who had been pushed south by the Baltic Finns. At the end of the century Lithuania was ruled by Jagiello, a pagan. When he married the Polish princess Jadwiga, as noted above, she converted him to Christianity and he then took the name Valdislav II. This marriage united Poland and Lithuania into a giant Slavic kingdom in 1385. The Polish-Lithuanian link was always loose, however, for several reasons not the least of which was that Poland was Catholic and Lithuania was chiefly Orthodox. In addition, they tended to pull in opposite directions, with the Poles chiefly concerned with the inroad of the Germans while the Lithuanians expanded along the Black Sea, hoping to exploit the decline of the Golden Horde. The latter were still tough enough, nevertheless, to defeat the Lithuanians in 1399 and close off their Black Sea outlet. (Ref. 49 , 119 , 61 , 137 ) (See map, page 726, also)

Russia (see map in russia section in 19th century)

Russia did not exist as a nation at this time. The western-most territory was dependent to Lithuania; the north had a variety of independent city-states, including from north to south the Principates of Novgorod, Moscow and Ryazan. The east, including all the territory north of the Caspian, some east of the Caspian, all north of the Black Sea in a diagonal line running northeast - all this was the Khanate of the Golden Horde with its Mongol-Turk marauder occupants. It was noted in the last chapter that in all probability the plague was brought to the Euro-Asian steppes from the southeast of Asia, then by the Mongols to the Crimea, from whence it spread to all of Europe. In 1347 the city of Caffa (now Feodosiya) was under siege by the Tartars when they suddenly began dying off with plague. The living Mongols catapulted their dead companions into the city and as the Christian defenders started home, nearly all died at sea. It was the survivors that started the epidemic in Italy that soon spread to the entire continent. (Ref. 8 , 137 , 125 )

Novgorod was an important city of the Hanseatic League with a population in this century of about 400,000, a high rate of literacy and a thriving economy. In the Ukraine the old Scythian population, mixed with Slav and some Mongol blood, reverted to a nomadic life and became the Christian Cossacks, forming somewhat of a buffer against the Tartars. The general population shift, however, was northward. In 1318 the Yarlik (charter) given by the Golden Horde to a north Russian subaltern, passed on to Prince Yuri of Moscow and then to Ivan of Moscow, who also brought the Church Metropolitan to that city. The Russians of the era were very pious, monasteries were numerous and the Patriarch Alexis was virtually the ruler of the Russian people from 1354 to 1370 as the church was the life and culture of all. In mid-century Ivan II of Moscow refused to pay tax to the Mongols and the latter retaliated by raiding and massacring some 24,000 people and burning the city of Moscow. After this, however, the Mongol hold on Russia gradually weakened and in the great battle of Kulikovo, Dmitri Donskoi (meaning "of the Don"), then ruler of Moscovy, defeated the Tartar army in 1380 for the first time. Lithuanian armies, which were supposed to help the Mongols, did not arrive on time and probably related to this defeat is the fact that in the same year the Golden Horde was conquered by the White Horde from the east, which then migrated into its territories, although in the West all were still known by the former name. The Mongol-Turks were still not completely destroyed, however, and lived to attack Moscow again. (Ref. 131 , 119 )

The Florentine bankers, Bardi and Peruzzi, had financed England's Edward III at the start of the 100 years war and when the king defaulted on those loans, Florence experienced the most serious financial crash in its history. All Europe had a general recession, which was followed by the Black Death. At the end of the century Jewish bankers, long kept at arms length, made their entry into Florence and settled there as money lenders in the next century In Florence secular education was organized, with up to 10,000 children (out of a total population of 100,000) attending school. Over 1,000 of those went on to high school, training specially for merchant apprentices. A boy stayed there until age 15, studying arithmetic and accounting. The merchants were an educated group. (Ref. 292 )

In Nuremberg, power was in the hands of only 43 patrician families, by law. This meant 150 to 200 ruling people out of 20,000 in the town and another 20,000 in the district. (Ref. 292 )

The wars of Edward II against Scotland were financed by Frescobaldi of Florence. (Ref. 292 )

Slavery was abolished in Sweden in 1335. (Ref. 301 )

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Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
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preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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