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In spite of the intermittent warfare

Rather than a continuous affair, the Hundred Years War was actually a series of intermittent wars
, business had a great emergence, with new tycoons developing in the wool industry. After 1350 so much of the locally grown wool was made into cloth in England that the weavers of Flanders and Italy had to get and use poorer wool from Spain and Ireland. This was also a period of semi-renaissance, with a more general desire for education and a sudden surge of interest in university training. Oxford enlarged and new colleges were started, including Exeter, Oriel and Queens. Balliol had been built in the previous century. (Ref. 49 , 137 )

But England also had its troubles in this century. Early on, heavy rains wrecked harvests and destroyed the vineyards. Then the Black Death (bubonic plague) rolled into England in 1347 and returned again in 1361 and 1368, killing from 1/4 to 112 of the entire population. Because of the decimation of the laboring class, labor trouble subsequently developed. Some ref used to work because of low wages and became bandits. One great revolt of the workers, the Wat Tyler rebellion, was finally put down in 1381 by young King Richard II, after some concessions were made. In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke of Lancaster, son of John of Gaunt, beat Richard in battle, imprisoned him and took over the realm as Henry IV, ending the Plantagenet Dynasty. It should be mentioned that war with the Scots was another ever present threat to England throughout this century and frequently a reality. (Ref. 49 , 8 , 222 )

Of some interest is the further development of the English language at this time. In 1362 Edward III ruled that English, rather than French, should be used for public trials and that was the first decisive defeat for the French language on the islands. Then English replaced Norman French in the schools and became the accepted language of the nation. Richard Rolle, who died of the plague in 1349, was the father of English prose, as he amalgamated Old English, Norman, French and Latin in a written language that had previously only been spoken. Geoffrey Chaucer lived and wrote in this type of English between 1340 and 1400. John Wycliff was partly responsible for the first complete, vernacular English Bible and this at a time when the established church felt that Bible reading by the masses was heresy. The poor priests who followed Wycliff (also Wyclif and Wiclif) were called Lollards and soon it was said that every fourth man in England was a Lollard, in that they adhered to his doctrines, which emphasized the purely spiritual function of the church, with direct access of the individual to God. Advocating a property-less church, Wycliff was opposed to the auricular confession and was in favor of the reduction of the importance of the sacraments. (Ref. 49 , 229 )


As the century opened Scotland remained without a king and suffered continual internal strife and external warfare with England. In early 1306, after a bloody confrontation with John Comyn the Red, Robert Bruce, a descendant of de Brus, was crowned King of Scotland. Immediately King Edward I of England started mobilization of forces to send north against him. Not ready for war, Robert I promptly disappeared into the western islands where, over the next many months, he gathered bands of Islemen, Irish and Gaels to initiate guerrilla warfare. Edward died in 1307 but the battles went on, with Robert making surprisingly successful raids on English strongholds, taking advantage of the weakness of Edward II. A great battle was finally fought at Bannock-burn, just south of Stirling, in 1314, with Robert I and 30,000 Scots defeating 100,000 English. An independent Scottish kingdom resulted with Robert I Bruce the unchallenged monarch. Bruce's daughter, Margaret, married Walter "the steward" and became the founder of the house of Stuart. (Ref. 8 , 38 , 91 , 119 )

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
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Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
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Prasenjit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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