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In Aragon territories, James II held Sardinia and Corsica, while giving Sicily to his brother Frederick. There was continued turmoil among the nobility, however, with Alfonso IV ruling from 1327 to 1336 and then giving way to Pedro IV who ruled from 1336 to 1387. He was virtually a prisoner of the nobility for much of that reign and was eventually succeeded by a nephew, John I of Aragon. Pedro's daughter, Eleanor, married another John, son of Enrigue of Castile, so that these two communities became reconciled. Granada remained under Moslem rule, tolerant and prosperous. The physician Ibn-a Khatib described the contagious aspect of the Black Death, in contrast to the general concept of the times, which was that it was due to divine vengeance.

Portugal

The great king Diniz was succeeded in 1325 by his son, Afonso IV. The latter had a troubled reign, including civil war with the opposition led by his son, Pedro (Peter) I. Under Ferdinand I further war with Castile occurred as Castile's Juan (John) claimed the throne because of his marriage to a Portuguese princess,- Beatrix, but the Castilians were beaten at the battle of Aljubarrota on August 14, 1385, which became Portuguese Independence Day. Under the Avis Dynasty, with John I the Great, Portugal entered the greatest period of its history. John married John Gaunt's daughter, Philippa, thus making the subsequent Avis family part English. (Ref. 119 , 222 )

France

The States-General met for the first time in 1302. Everywhere the new monarchies were finding a powerful aristocratic reaction and it was a particularly bad century for France. In addition to the revolt of the nobles there were labor-employer troubles and then England's attempt to conquer France, which began the Hundred Years' War in 1331. This came close to initial success with victories for England at Crecy in 1346 when Edward III's 4,000 knights and 10,000 English and Welsh longbowmen defeated Philip VI's 38,000 assorted heavily armored men and again at Poitiers in 1356, when the Black Prince of Wales took France's Jean II (John) prisoner. (Ref. 8 , 222 ) Cannon were first used at Calais, in 1347. (Ref. 260 ) Unrest in Paris in that same year was led by Etienne Marcel and eventually led to violence. French expansion eastward was checked by the expanding Duchy of Burgundy. As can be noted on the accompanying small maps, by 1360 England controlled all of the southwestern portion of modern day France. By 1380, however, Charles V had retaken most of that territory. The devastation of the crops was responsible for more deaths in that war than the battles themselves. When Genoa, reeling from a final defeat by Venice in 1396, accepted French protection, the stage seemed set for a full-scale French intervention in Italy, but this was not yet to be as Charles VI, inheriting the throne, became insane and the French government was paralyzed. (Ref. 8 , 213 )

France had other problems in this century. Four general famines occurred and there was a crisis in north European salt production, partly because of the Hundred Years' War and partly because of economic conditions. The chief source of salt then became the beach pans of Bouigneuf Bay in southern Brittany, but this was of poor quality. Other problems were religious in nature. Early in the century Philip IV, wanting the Knights Templars' property, forced Pope Clement to allow the Grand Inquisitor, Guillaume of Paris, to prosecute the Templars as heretics. De Molay was burned at the stake in this activity and thus became a martyr. Since the Knights, originally an ascetic Catholic order, had over the years become very wealthy and were serving as the bankers of civilization, their prosecution could not help but interfere with the country 's economic as well as religious activities. France expelled all Jews in 1394. (Ref. 49 , 211 , 260 )

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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