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Back to Europe: A.D. 1701 to 1800

The population of Europe increased in this century from about 190 million to over 400 million. Industrialization of continental Europe followed England's examples and appeared early in the century basically in the regions of available coal, as in northern France, Belgium and the Ruhr Valley in Germany. Many of the industries and the necessary railway transportation systems were built and operated by governments, because of a lack of private capital. McNeill (Ref. 279 ) says that the industrialization of war began in the 1840s when railroads and semi-automated mass production together with Prussian breech-loaders and French naval steam efforts began to transform the previous military establishments. Western scientists (including Russians) tried to find the secret of damask steel (see pages 342, 348 and 643) and in so doing really initiated the field of metallography. (Ref. 260 ) The technology for using this metallurgy and other rapidly developing new fields in armaments actually started in the United States, by 1870. Russia, Spain, Sweden, Denmark and even Turkey and Egypt, were all following the original English example of importing American milling machinery for gun making. (Ref. 279 )

The decline in oversea transportation costs made possible by the development of the steamship allowed an era of migration from Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Siberia. Railroads and steamships alike also extended the area from which bulky crops such as grains and minerals could be marketed and refrigeration allowed food and meat to be brought in from America, China, Australia and India. After 1871, although Europe was heavily armed, there were no wars for the remainder of the century. Ireland, England and all northern Europe, including Russia, had been badly hurt in mid-century, however, by the potato crop failure caused by the establishment of a Peruvian parasitic fungus, which implanted itself in European potatoes. The resulting famine in Irish, Belgian and German populations, along with typhus fever and other diseases, produced millions of deaths. (Ref. 8 , 211 )

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

By 1829 the Cyclades had become part of Greece, rather than Turkey. The Greek Cretans revolted against the Turks in the Greek-Turkish War at the end of the century and Crete became independent. (Ref. 38 ) The authorities then allowed Sir Arthur Evans to start excavations at Knossus. (Ref. 127 ) The Italian Frederico Halbherr had done some excavation work on the south shore of the island as early as 1884. Britain occupied Cyprus in 1877


Led by Alexander Ypsilanti, the Greeks rose against the Muslim overlordship of the Turks in 1821 and in the following year declared their independence. The war was a savage one and also had elements of civil conf lict within Greek groups, themselves.

Great Britain, Russia and France finally helped Greece by def eating the Egyptian Muslim, Muhammad Ali, who had taken control of Greece, along with Crete and part of Syria. The victory came in a great naval battle of Navarino, in 1827 and an independent Greek kingdom was established in 1830 under Otto I, who had been a Bavarian prince. A constitution was forced upon the unwilling king in 1844 and by 1862 he was forced to abdicate in favor of Prince George of Denmark. After that Greece gradually gained more territory, acquiring the Ionian islands and Thessaly.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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