<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 1301 to 1400

At 1401 there was no dominant state in Europe. Germany and Italy were fragmented and the eastern empires of Casimir IV of Poland and Corvinus of Hungary developed late in the century and even then were ephemeral. The Iberian Peninsula had civil war and France had the Burgundians and Armagnacs feuding. Prolonged climate deterioration began about 1450, starting the "Little Ice Age", which lasted up to the first of the 19th century. (Ref. 8 , 224 ) In spite of all this, after about 1450 Europe began to recover from the prolonged disasters and deficiencies of the previous 100 years. (Ref. 292 )

Slavery had almost ceased in Europe until Portugal revived the custom in the latter half of the century, with the blacks from Africa. (Ref. 213 ) Movable type printing gradually came into use so that by 1500 some 236 towns in Europe had their own print shops (11). As Braudel (Ref. 260 ) states, the printing press expanded and invigorated everything. For centuries there had been two different European navies - the Mediterranean and the northern - but with increased trade and intermingling, the clinker construction and centerline rudder of the northern ships began to appear in the Mediterranean, while the southern lanteen rig went north and Europe began to emerge more as a single civilization. Vehicles with a moveable front axle, first used in gun carriages, were only employed after about 1470. As populations increased and artillery made their old walls useless, 15th century towns began to face serious problems. New, wide ramparts filled with earth (and thus hardly movable) had to be constructed and then large open spaces in front of these fortifications were necessary, eliminating gardens and trees. (Ref. 260 )

Methods of exchange of goods had changed considerably by this century. Essentially only towns (or very large villages) now had markets. The western town controlled everything and the market, held usually once or twice a week, was one of its chief mechanisms. The surrounding countryside needed time to produce and collect goods and then divert some individuals, usually women, to sell the produce. On the seas, ships had increased enormously in size and were no longer individually owned, as shares were sold. The money market moved towards Holland and later London. (Ref. 292 )

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Venice continued her domination of most of the Mediterranean and added the island of Cyprus to her possessions in this century. (Ref. 38 ) The exception was Rhodes, which remained under control of the Knights Hospitallers.

Greece

Early in the century Greece was divided between Ottomans, Venice, some Latin States and a small area still belonging to Byzantium. By late century all had been pushed out by the Ottoman Turks except for a few coastal islands which were still controlled by Venice. In the next century or two many Greek men actually functioned as Ottoman generals and officials. (Ref. 137 )

Upper balkans

Early on the bulk of the Balkans were under Turkish domination with the exceptions of Romania, which was a part of Hungary, and the Principality of Moldavia. Albania was taken by the Ottomans in 1430 and by 1436 the entire peninsula was Turkish. Their attempted invasion of Hungary began in 1439. Merchant Sicilians (Ragusans) were the chief westerners to penetrate this Balkan Turkish territory. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask