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(Ref. 8 , 119 )


The Swiss were the best soldiers in Europe and were frequently hired out as mercenaries and they repulsed all attempts of the Austrian dukes to enforce feudal rights. In 1315, after defeating the Habsburg dukes by rolling rocks down the hills on to the knights, at the battle of Morgarten, three cantons made the further step of forming the Swiss Confederacy, on their way to establishing the most stable and sensible democracy in history. Soon the original three cantons had been joined by five others. The Confederacy, however, remained a part of the Holy Roman Empire, although the southern communes emancipated themselves from the domination of the House of Habsurg by defeating Leopold II of Swabia, in 1388. Blamed for spreading the Black Death, Jews were persecuted at Lake Geneva and Basel. (Ref. 222 )

Western europe

Famines, the Black Death (1346-53) and social and economic strife reordered the manorial system throughout western Europe, with the previous servile tenant becoming either a free-holder or wage worker. Laborers organized and revolts erupted. (Ref. 8 ) After 1350, for a hundred years there was a sharp drop in population and concomitantly a rise in the standard of living for the survivors of the epidemics and famines, as they inherited property and had more land for use and could concentrate on only the good, productive land. (Ref. 260 )


Racially and geographically Spain was lacking in unity. Its population was a mixture of many stocks - Iberian, Celtic, Carthaginian and Roman, Teutonic and Arabic, Moorish and Jewish - and its mountains had prevented it from acquiring homogeneity.

In the Christian areas they had only religion in common. The one saving grace of 14th century Spain was wool, the chief source of royal revenue. By 1400 this country was exporting wool all over Europe and especially to Tuscany, while English exports there had dropped. (Ref. 213 , 222 )

Bands of mercenaries employed by every side took place in dynastic wars over most of the country. Although the successors of Alfonso X were not very capable, Alfonso XI (1340) did defeat an attack of Spanish and Moroccon Moslems and ended the African menace. This battle of Rio Salado (1340) saw perhaps the first use of cannon in Europe. (Ref. 281 ) Throughout the Hundred Years War, Castile supported France but tried to avoid actual hostility with England. Pedro the Cruel came to power in mid-century and, helped by the Franciscan monks, promoted a terrible persecution of Jews. Some of the latter converted to Christianity while others fled or were killed. Otherwise Pedro's reign was little more than a dynastic struggle with his half-brother, Enrigue (Henry) Trastamara.

The French, outraged by Pedro's treatment of his French wife, sent Du Guesclin to Spain to support Enrigue, while the English supported Pedro until they, too, became estranged by the kings' viscous character. Ultimately Enrigue defeated and killed Pedro and subsequently reigned as Enrigue II Trastamara. In Spanish history this was the "Trastamara usurpation" of 1369. Peace was made with both Aragon and Portugal by 1374. (Ref. 222 ) Enrigue's son, John I, and grandson, Enrigue III followed him on the throne before the end of the century.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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