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Good partitioning requires knowledge of the software structure. A good testing plan will not only contain black-box testing, but also white-box approaches, and combinations of the two.

White-box testing

Contrary to black-box testing, software is viewed as a white-box, or glass-box in white-box testing, as the structure and flow of the software under test are visible to the tester. Testing plans are made according to the details of the software implementation, such as programming language, logic, and styles. Test cases are derived from the program structure. White-box testing is also called glass-box testing, logic-driven testing or design-based testing.

There are many techniques available in white-box testing, because the problem of intractability is eased by specific knowledge and attention on the structure of the software under test. The intention of exhausting some aspect of the software is still strong in white-box testing, and some degree of exhaustion can be achieved, such as executing each line of code at least once (statement coverage), traverse every branch statements (branch coverage), or cover all the possible combinations of true and false condition predicates (Multiple condition coverage).

Control-flow testing, loop testing, and data-flow testing, all maps the corresponding flow structure of the software into a directed graph. Test cases are carefully selected based on the criterion that all the nodes or paths are covered or traversed at least once. By doing so we may discover unnecessary "dead" code - code that is of no use, or never get executed at all, which can not be discovered by functional testing.

In mutation testing, the original program code is perturbed and many mutated programs are created, each contains one fault. Each faulty version of the program is called a mutant. Test data are selected based on the effectiveness of failing the mutants. The more mutants a test case can kill, the better the test case is considered. The problem with mutation testing is that it is too computationally expensive to use. The boundary between black-box approach and white-box approach is not clear-cut. Many testing strategies mentioned above, may not be safely classified into black-box testing or white-box testing. It is also true for transaction-flow testing, syntax testing, finite-state testing, and many other testing strategies not discussed in this text. One reason is that all the above techniques will need some knowledge of the specification of the software under test. Another reason is that the idea of specification itself is broad - it may contain any requirement including the structure, programming language, and programming style as part of the specification content.

We may be reluctant to consider random testing as a testing technique. The test case selection is simple and straightforward: they are randomly chosen. Random testing is more cost effective for many programs. Some very subtle errors can be discovered with low cost. And it is also not inferior in coverage than other carefully designed testing techniques. One can also obtain reliability estimate using random testing results based on operational profiles. Effectively combining random testing with other testing techniques may yield more powerful and cost-effective testing strategies.

Questions & Answers

what is cmmi
Mulukutla Reply
what are the benefits of been a software engineer
Amissah
hi
Sunday
gud morning oo
Sunday
kk
Sunday
the benefits are life changing
Louis
can have your own ai
Louis
an ai system
Louis
is studying software engineer needs to be math expertise?
Carmela
depends on what your doing
Louis
grasp the whole field by being a problem solver
Louis
mathematics is the language of computing
Louis
but also its the language of the universe
Louis
before you start typing code please plan on pen and paper first with a goal in mind.
Louis
Thank you !!
Carmela
Are you a software engineer already?
Carmela
mathematics is not compulsory for coding
Nadday
just needed basic Nexus calculations
Nadday
what programming language ?
Louis
@Carnela Villegas : Your welcome
Louis
engineering in process student of software engineering
Nadday
@Naddy Naddy: What programming language are you using if i may ask ?
Louis
couple of languages are there not bounded specifically to single one
Nadday
python, Java, Java script, php, swift, go, c# and many more are trending in
Nadday
Java is now superseding his popularity but still the one of the most used coding language
Nadday
I want to be a software engineer too ...
Carmela
best of luck
Nadday
python is now
Louis
python is used by nasa and for data science aswell for live coding and hacking
Louis
it is the fastest growing language to date
Louis
but being efficient at math is a general stand point if your not language specific
Louis
but c++ can't be beat
Louis
especially with the new c++20 coming
Louis
swift for apple
Louis
swift is made by c code
Louis
c++ is > c
Louis
yes pathon is invented in 1991 by guido van rusom it's popular now a days but it's literally used now as much a Java and Java script php but still most popular python
Nadday
c made java
Louis
java is still convenient though
Louis
c made by bell laboratories one of the basic coding languages
Nadday
windows also used it
Nadday
it just depends on what goal you have in mind to you have in mind to use programming language as a conversion
Louis
mathematics > any programming language
Louis
😊
Louis
sorry I've accidentally placed a question mark lol
Louis
😂
Louis
sorry I couldn't get your point
Nadday
no i was saying my device placed 2 question marks accidentally
Louis
but your very intelligent aswell my friend where do you stay if i may ask @Naddy Naddy ?
Louis
I am from Pakistan
Nadday
awesome im from united states my friend nice to meet you lol
Louis
thank you same here
Nadday
how to start making a software?
Jerry Reply
books or teacher
Louis
both of
Hemant
both
ben
i prefer books and a reference teacher on side im self taught self learn everything
Louis
time is your best friend
Louis
I want learn more as well
Ogunrinde
well honestly it would be too large to explain everything in chat but, pick the programming language of choice your most comfortable with, learn that language, make it yours, use it as a primary language to learn in parallel any other language of object oriented programming,
Louis
also it wouldn't hurt to have a basic background in math
Louis
but be a scientist behind the machine(Computer)
Louis
have math be your way of translation of human to computer interaction because you can solve any problem in the universe with mathematics
Louis
good to know discrete topics embedded systems, electrical engineering
Louis
doesn't hurt to have a buddy to team up on project while your asleep to keep progressing
Louis
(Important!..) have real data to work on, the reason is because there have to be some goal to be achieved at some point.
Louis
Be alittle greedy to learn any and all about any language you use.
Louis
Another important thing is not to rush through learning
Louis
once you learn a concept try teaching the concept to someone else who is as interested as you are, that way. the concept will be stuck concretely in your mind.
Louis
slow but sure please guys.education is not like food.
Emmanuel
if you like graphics and games you can use a language that have graphics libraries such as C++, Python, or Java as an example
Louis
who can tell Why software is more important in computer science
Emmanuel
don't just learn alittle want the whole thing and want to know everything at your finger tips
Louis
grasp
Louis
because the hardware and software is useful depends on how useful your goal is
Louis
graphics is not about database management system.c++ is about programming.
Emmanuel
be an android who's drug is "addicted to information" related to the field.
Louis
and in need of the most complex algorithm update
Louis
learn console applications
Louis
how does your languge relate to databases
Louis
and web programming
Louis
i know just throwing some things your way to open mind
Louis
im certi at c++
Louis
it is a general programming language used to build many infrastructure
Louis
including database web and many other soft ware frameworks
Louis
excellent
Ogunrinde
Thanks
Louis
Suppose we are faced with developing a system that we expect to have 100000LOC. Compute the effort and the effort development time for each of the three development modes i.e. Organic, semi - detached and embedded .
yukta Reply
c++ or python or java
Louis
Discuss multi threading as used in windows, Linux and Unix
James Reply
what is software ?
Chirag Reply
Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices...
amjad
what is ergonomics.
amjad
er·go·nom·ics ˌərɡəˈnämiks/ noun the study of people's efficiency in their working environment
Louis
what is software integration?how can you integrate two different softwares with one single module?
strings Reply
Either type casting or template rogramming through STL
Louis
use c++
Louis
what is the STL?
abdo
STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY
Louis
thanks louis
abdo
your welcome my friend
Louis
I have another question guy's.What's the HTML?
Zuheyp Reply
An HTML is  a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, colour, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages.
Hemant
it is also a computer language devised to allow website creation
Hemant
you're clever Man
Zuheyp
i have a c++ question
Louis
C++ is a general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming. C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. C++ was deve
Zuheyp
what's the relationship Design Define Debug Development Development
Zuheyp Reply
sorry question is confusing
Louis
ok
Zuheyp
Define attached Design attached Development attached Debug attached Deployment attached Define
Zuheyp
Attach and deploy components to environments instead of directly to an Atom. Components can be attached and deployed to different environments with unique build versions and can include different deploy-time settings.
Hemant
is it same?
Zuheyp
and debug:If your app is already running on your device, you can start debugging without restarting 
Hemant
yeah that's cool
Zuheyp
Am mean that's right
Zuheyp
and select the debug target
Hemant
What is C language?
Bashir Reply
short note on software engineering
prachi Reply
am interested
marvellous
Explain human computer interaction
amjad
AI
Louis
Human computer interaction is the study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. 
Hemant
human needs for the computer[stated]
Louis
AI=Artificial Intelligence
Louis
all explained abstractingly
Louis
Please give me a Standard definition of the word *software*
marvellous
collection of program is called software
Hemant
what is sowftware?
rana Reply
please correct the spellings of software
majid
kk
Amissah
soft ware is the Application of principles used in field of engineering
Zuheyp
how do you compare c++ concepts with unity and directx pipeline
Louis
software is a collection of program.
Hemant
software engineering eligiblelity criteria for DAE civil students?
Engr Reply
what is software?
Abdullahi Reply
software means instructions or data that enable computers to work
majid
hi
Abdullahi
majid
Abdullahi
yes abdullahi
majid
how you
Abdullahi
i want to be software engineer ing
Abdullahi
I am fine
majid
software is a collection of program
Hemant
I want to learn software engineering what should I do
Emmanuel
googles your best friend, amazon books, barnes and noble etc..
Louis
software is the set of computer programs executing on computer ; they're made of instructions know as Algorithm. an Algorithm is a sequence of instructions designed to solve a particular problem. Software is all virtual parts of the computer ; computer programs. Software must be well designed.
Manuel
Emmanuel Adebayor. you need to investigate what university has a good level at teaching, this is the most important thing at University to become one the best professional software engineer on earth. You can either get information from public universities or consulting in particular Univesities
Manuel
I'm a software engineer student and I can tell you , you can learn a lot of interesting things about the career, I'm sure you won't regret it.
Manuel
What is design pattern in software engineering? Explain briefly...
amjad
thanks to allow
Hemant
what are the good books to read as a beginner of software engineer.
ben
hi everyone, I'm so happy that I found myself in the mist of knowledgeable people right here, I know that by following this conversation, and by putting it into practice I will an expert in software engineering
Ogunrinde
hi! how to start making a software?
Jerry
can i get more information about data structured centered design
Samir Reply
what is best course to get job
Eswar Reply
engineering
Abdullahi

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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