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Based on the software engineer’s intuition and experience

Ad hoc testing

Perhaps the most widely practiced technique remains ad hoc testing: tests are derived relying on the software engineer’s skill, intuition, and experience with similar programs. Ad hoc testing might be useful for identifying special tests, those not easily captured by formalized techniques.

Exploratory testing

Exploratory testing is defined as simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution; that is, the tests are not defined in advance in an established test plan, but are dynamically designed, executed, and modified. The effectiveness of exploratory testing relies on the software engineer’s knowledge, which can be derived from various sources: observed product behavior during testing, familiarity with the application, the platform, the failure process, the type of possible faults and failures, the risk associated with a particular product, and so on.

Specification-based techniques

Equivalence partitioning

The input domain is subdivided into a collection of subsets, or equivalent classes, which are deemed equivalent according to a specified relation, and a representative set of tests (sometimes only one) is taken from each class.

Boundary-value analysis

Test cases are chosen on and near the boundaries of the input domain of variables, with the underlying rationale that many faults tend to concentrate near the extreme values of inputs. An extension of this technique is robustness testing, wherein test cases are also chosen outside the input domain of variables, to test program robustness to unexpected or erroneous inputs.

Decision table

Decision tables represent logical relationships between conditions (roughly, inputs) and actions (roughly, outputs). Test cases are systematically derived by considering every possible combination of conditions and actions. A related technique is cause-effect graphing.

Finite-state machine-based

By modeling a program as a finite state machine, tests can be selected in order to cover states and transitions on it.

Testing from formal specifications

Giving the specifications in a formal language allows for automatic derivation of functional test cases, and, at the same time, provides a reference output, an oracle, for checking test results. Methods exist for deriving test cases from model-based or algebraic specifications.

Random testing

Tests are generated purely at random, not to be confused with statistical testing from the operational profile. This form of testing falls under the heading of the specification-based entry, since at least the input domain must be known, to be able to pick random points within it.

Code-based techniques

Control-flow-based criteria

Control-flow-based coverage criteria is aimed at covering all the statements or blocks of statements in a program, or specified combinations of them. Several coverage criteria have been proposed, like condition/decision coverage. The strongest of the control-flow-based criteria is path testing, which aims to execute all entry-to-exit control flow paths in the flowgraph. Since path testing is generally not feasible because of loops, other less stringent criteria tend to be used in practice, such as statement testing, branch testing, and condition/decision testing. The adequacy of such tests is measured in percentages; for example, when all branches have been executed at least once by the tests, 100% branch coverage is said to have been achieved.

Questions & Answers

what is sowftware?
rana Reply
please correct the spellings of software
majid
kk
Amissah
software engineering eligiblelity criteria for DAE civil students?
Engr Reply
what is software?
Abdullahi Reply
software means instructions or data that enable computers to work
majid
hi
Abdullahi
majid
Abdullahi
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majid
how you
Abdullahi
i want to be software engineer ing
Abdullahi
I am fine
majid
can i get more information about data structured centered design
Samir Reply
what is best course to get job
Eswar Reply
engineering
Abdullahi
Why do most computer sciences emphasize the technical foundations of software development?
Profneil Reply
The simplist model of software development paradigms all the phace of software development life cycle will functional one after another in linear manner. * When the phase is finish then only the second face will start.
udara Reply
yes
dawit
yes
Abdullahi
the reason for learning this course?
Gabriel Reply
what is soo muchh tough to understand in so software engineering?
Syed
yes
dawit
plz tell me waterfall model
Shantanu
components of software engineering
khan Reply
what is coding
YUSUF Reply
Coding is a type of a language that a computer understand..
HANAN
it's how a computer interprets software, programs and what to do when it reads the code. Code is like our sub-conscious but to a computer if that makes sense.
Dustin
hello, I don't know anything about software but I have this passion to learn. where do I start from pls
Oliver Reply
computer science class or just take a introduction to computers class. You can always try to find a mentor or self teach yourself as well.
Dustin
What is coding
diwakar
hgg
Sarik
what important of software
Tom Reply
dorimon in hindi
Yogesh
Hello
Mark
Mrs dorimon
Mark
hello
Tom
ha
Khizer
I'm. new in programming
Khizer
did anyone help
Khizer
me
Khizer
ok on me am new in programming
Tom
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Khizer
hello guy's
Shey
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Tom
I want to know more about programming
Shey
hello
Francis
hello
Xotambek
hi
Peterson
how r u my friends ?
Xotambek
l would like to know what do I need if I want to.create a sun glasses where you can see everything when you're sharing something via bluetooth
Peterson
hi
Peterson
I have so many things that I want to create in the technology industry
Peterson
but I need a group of people who are willing bring ideas on the table and work together to make success
Peterson
wow
Shey
What sorts of feild knowledge do you need?
leo
Mr. Peteson pinchinat, hello!
leo
I don't really know what do I need to learn that's why I'm asking
Peterson
I need help to create all those things that I want to.
Peterson
peterson pinchinat I have so many ideas and much more things in my mind
Khizer
hello
Purity
even Me guys
Mark
if you have many ideas than I have so let's work together let's build a team . let's put our ideas and start working together to make success.
Peterson
I really like to work with software
Khizer
any I like that people how have interest on new technology and software developer, engineering
Khizer
wow!!! we have something in common.
Peterson
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Peterson
so where we can do work
Khizer
we have to find a way. I'm living in Brooklyn what about you?
Peterson
there we shared work
Khizer
I know people from India they are really good in compute
Peterson
thanks
Khizer
first we need to find out how we gonna work. I know the distance won't be a problem we need to trust each other and create a great team then bring revolution in the technology
Peterson
I have an idea
Khizer
ok
Peterson
send me the website?
Peterson
wait for a 2 days I make that and tell you ok
Khizer
perfect
Peterson
good
Shey
Yes ,It is possible to be a programmer without University Degree.You have a lot professional courses that you access and register for on the net.Please get hook and search ..thanks
NICCK-PAT
Great ,I am NICCk-PAT in Paris France.
NICCK-PAT
hello
Dustin
how do i create software
Ahmad Reply
Hii
Sameer
I am fine
Sarik
I am big bro this site and software engineering..?
Vikki
Any question guys?
Vikki
how to get grip on any programming language starting from scratch
Pavan
because iam new to programming
Pavan
sup
Louis
with your imagination for the love of computers
Louis
what is the IEEE ?
Shankar Reply
a external device cable capable of transferring large amounts of data at high speed.
Dustin
really
Shey
How to learn in this app? ..help me
HANAN Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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