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This module is a summary of the different stem cell policies from around the world. This module covers policies concerning derivation of embryonic stem cells, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning from around the globe.

North america

United states

  • Officially, embryonic stem cell research, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are legal as there is currently no federal regulation or policies overseeing it.
  • Reproductive and therapeutic cloning are specifically not federally funded. However, research on human embryonic stem cells is federally funded if these cell lines were created before August 9, 2001. Private industry research is not affected by these policies and is allowed to proceed with the creation of new stem cell lines.
  • Some individual states have made their own laws against reproductive and/or therapeutic cloning. (See State Cloning Legislation module)

Canada

  • Embryonic stem cell research is permitted, but reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning are banned.
  • Researchers can use an embryo from IVF if it is no longer needed for reproductive purposes and consent is given by the donor. Creating a human clone is restricted to improving or providing instruction in assisted reproduction procedures.

Costa rica

  • Embryonic stem cell research, as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning, is banned.
  • Any manipulation of an embryo's genetic code is prohibited, as well as any experimentation on the embryo (two laws as of 1995 and 1998).

Panama

  • Embryonic stem cell research is not specifically prohibited, but therapeutic and reproductive cloning and the funding of such activities are as of 2004.

Trinidad and tobago

  • Embryonic stem cell research as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning is banned.
  • The law states that the manipulation of ovum , zygotes , and/or embryos for the purpose of producing one that is genetically equivalent to a living or deceased human being, embryo, zygote, or fetus -- or implantation of this -- is prohibited. The ovum may not be retrieved to be fertilized, to mature outside of the human body, or to be implanted (as of 1999).

El salvador

  • Embryonic stem cell research as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning is banned.

South america

Argentina

  • Embryonic stem cell research is permitted, but all forms of cloning (reproductive and therapeutic) are banned.
  • The law specifically states that experiments concerning cloning of human cells in order to generate human beings are prohibited.

Brazil

  • Embryonic stem cell research is allowed on IVF embryos that have been frozen for at least three years. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are banned (Bio-Safety Law, March 24, 2005).

Chile

  • Embryonic stem cell research is not specifically prohibited, but therapeutic and reproductive cloning and the funding of such activities are.
  • The law states that the cloning of human beings and interventions which results in the creation of a human being genetically identical to another is prohibited.

Columbia

  • Embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning are permitted, but reproductive cloning is banned.
  • The criminal code (2000) prohibits fertilization of a human ovum with intent other than procreation and prohibits genetic manipulation for the purpose of reproductive cloning. The code does allow the fertilization of human ova for research and diagnostic purposes, if there is a therapeutic goal.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
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what's the program
Jordan
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what chemical
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Stem cell research: a science and policy overview. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10445/1.1
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