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In order to study the statistical fluctuations introduced by the discreteness of charge and matter it is necessary to perform 3D simulations of very large ensembles of hundreds of thousands of devices, rather than a single representative device. Given the increasing number of transistors in modern chips, simulation of very large statistical samples of devices is required to allow statistically rare devices with potentially fatal effects on circuit performance and functionality to be examined. This requires access to significant distributed high performance computing resources, including the UK e-Science National Grid Service , ScotGrid and a wide variety of other resources including Condor pools and campus clusters across partner sites. However, this is not simply another large scale simulation problem, since the commercially sensitive nature of the information and stringent IP protection requirements necessitate fine grained security on access to, and usage of, licensed software; protection of the intellectual property associated with circuit and device designs, data and simulations belonging to industrial partners and key stakeholders.

To this end, the project has developed an infrastructure capable of providing comprehensive security. This includes exploitation of Kerberos for secure global file based access through the Andrews File System; authorization technologies such as PERMIS for definition and enforcement of access policies using centralized attribute authorities such as the Virtual Organisation Membership Service (VOMS), and simple user-oriented access to a project portal through the Internet2 Shibboleth technology using the UK Access Management Federation. Furthermore, the project has identified that a key challenge is in data annotation and management. The simulations that are undertaken can generate large quantities of data and meta-data and the electronics domain unlike other domains does not have agreed standards on data format, rather, the data formats tend to be driven by commercial tool providers.

Total CPU time per VO between 16.11.2006 and 19.3.2009
Total number of submitted jobs per VO between 16.11.2006 and 19.3.2009
nanoCMOS Resource Usage on ScotGrid

Traditionally, due to the computational complexity of 3D device simulation, studies of variability have been based on small ensembles of devices typically up to 200 devices and simulations on much larger scale have hitherto never been undertaken. Simulations of ensembles of up to 100,000+ devices enabled by the grid technology are shedding new light on the impact of atomic structure variation on the behaviour of devices, especially at the extreme limits of device variability. Furthermore, based on these simulations, we have been able to examine the effect of device variability at a simple circuit level and have simulated over 1 million CMOS inverters using random configurations of devices. Figure 3(a) shows the potential and dopant position of a statistically rare device. Figure 3(b) shows the threshold voltage variation as a function of the number of dopants.

Potential/Dopant Distribution for Statistically Rare Device
Threshold Voltage Variation as Function of the Number of Dopant atoms in the transistor

Summary and further workd

The nanoCMOS project has shown the value of e-Research methods in the field of microprocessor circuit design. Use of distributed high performance computing and other dispersed computing resources has allowed for large scale simulations that assist the CMOS design community in managing device variability. The work on nanoCMOS is still progressing and higher level circuit and system design tools are being incorporated into the e-Infrastructure. The systems are being extended in numerous other ways including seamless access to multiple-HPC facilities depending upon user privileges. Optimisation of job submission and management based upon data distribution and security constraints is another area that is currently being investigated. More information on the nanoCMOS project is available at www.nanocmos.ac.uk , or through contacting Prof. Asenov (a.asenov@elec.gla.ac.uk - science related questions) or Prof. Sinnott (r.sinnott@nesc.gla.ac.uk - e-Infrastructure related questions).


This work was funded by a grant from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. We gratefully acknowledge their support.


Sinnott, R.O. et al. (2006). Meeting the Design Challenges of nanoCMOS Electronics: An Introduction to an EPSRC Pilot Project. UK e-Science All Hands Meeting , Nottingham UK, September.

Reid, D. et al. (2008). Prediction of Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations in NanoCMOS Transistors International Conference on Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices , Sept.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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