# 12.7 Magnetism in matter  (Page 5/13)

 Page 5 / 13

Check Your Understanding Repeat the calculations from the previous example for ${I}_{0}=0.040\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{A}.$

a. $1.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-4}\text{T}$ ; b. 0.60 T; c. $6.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}$

## Summary

• Materials are classified as paramagnetic, diamagnetic, or ferromagnetic, depending on how they behave in an applied magnetic field.
• Paramagnetic materials have partial alignment of their magnetic dipoles with an applied magnetic field. This is a positive magnetic susceptibility. Only a surface current remains, creating a solenoid-like magnetic field.
• Diamagnetic materials exhibit induced dipoles opposite to an applied magnetic field. This is a negative magnetic susceptibility.
• Ferromagnetic materials have groups of dipoles, called domains, which align with the applied magnetic field. However, when the field is removed, the ferromagnetic material remains magnetized, unlike paramagnetic materials. This magnetization of the material versus the applied field effect is called hysteresis.

## Key equations

 Permeability of free space ${\mu }_{0}=4\pi \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-7}\text{T}\cdot \text{m/A}$ Contribution to magnetic field from a current element $dB=\frac{{\mu }_{0}}{4\pi }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{I\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dl\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\theta }{{r}^{2}}$ Biot–Savart law $\stackrel{\to }{B}=\frac{{\mu }_{0}}{4\pi }\underset{\text{wire}}{\int }\frac{Id\stackrel{\to }{l}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{^}{r}}{{r}^{2}}$ Magnetic field due to a long straight wire $B=\frac{{\mu }_{0}I}{2\pi R}$ Force between two parallel currents $\frac{F}{l}=\frac{{\mu }_{0}{I}_{1}{I}_{2}}{2\pi r}$ Magnetic field of a current loop $B=\frac{{\mu }_{0}I}{2R}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{(at center of loop)}$ Ampère’s law $\oint \stackrel{\to }{B}·d\stackrel{\to }{l}={\mu }_{0}I$ Magnetic field strength inside a solenoid $B={\mu }_{0}nI$ Magnetic field strength inside a toroid $B=\frac{{\mu }_{o}NI}{2\pi r}$ Magnetic permeability $\mu =\left(1+\chi \right){\mu }_{0}$ Magnetic field of a solenoid filled with paramagnetic material $B=\mu nI$

## Conceptual questions

A diamagnetic material is brought close to a permanent magnet. What happens to the material?

If you cut a bar magnet into two pieces, will you end up with one magnet with an isolated north pole and another magnet with an isolated south pole? Explain your answer.

The bar magnet will then become two magnets, each with their own north and south poles. There are no magnetic monopoles or single pole magnets.

## Problems

The magnetic field in the core of an air-filled solenoid is 1.50 T. By how much will this magnetic field decrease if the air is pumped out of the core while the current is held constant?

A solenoid has a ferromagnetic core, n = 1000 turns per meter, and I = 5.0 A. If B inside the solenoid is 2.0 T, what is $\chi$ for the core material?

317.31

A 20-A current flows through a solenoid with 2000 turns per meter. What is the magnetic field inside the solenoid if its core is (a) a vacuum and (b) filled with liquid oxygen at 90 K?

The magnetic dipole moment of the iron atom is about $2.1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-23}\text{A}·{\text{m}}^{2}.$ (a) Calculate the maximum magnetic dipole moment of a domain consisting of ${10}^{19}$ iron atoms. (b) What current would have to flow through a single circular loop of wire of diameter 1.0 cm to produce this magnetic dipole moment?

$2.1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-4}\text{A}·{\text{m}}^{2}$
$2.7\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{A}$

Suppose you wish to produce a 1.2-T magnetic field in a toroid with an iron core for which $\chi =4.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}.$ The toroid has a mean radius of 15 cm and is wound with 500 turns. What current is required?

A current of 1.5 A flows through the windings of a large, thin toroid with 200 turns per meter. If the toroid is filled with iron for which $\chi =3.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3},$ what is the magnetic field within it?

0.18 T

#### Questions & Answers

What is dielectric
its a type of medium. generally poor conductors. but their conductivity can be changed
vedanth
you just have to add impurities
vedanth
Thanks
Ssempala
grt
Ssempala
a material which behave as conductor
Shikhar
insulating material, energy level for electron transfer is very high e.g used to increase a magnetic field in a capacitor
What is the difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity? Give the equations
presentation on power
relation between Celsius and Kelvin
Newton's second laws is call with
what is mean by thermodynamics
it is study about temperature and it's equilibrium
thiru
Its the study of heat and its relation with others kind of energy
Antonio
state caulombs law clearly
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
srikanta
@ezra & srikanta; for electrons: a=ke^2/(mr^2) and for protons: a=kp^2/(mr^2)
Sikandar
what is electrostatics
the study of charge at rest
Gulzar
@Hero; the study of charges at rest is the electrostatics
Sikandar
okay what is electrostatic?
Abd
charge at rest
Nawal
set of character...
Arzoodan
oky
Abd
Gauss law, electric fields, dipoles,...
Antonio
good
Abd
A proton initially at rest falls through a p.d of 25000V. what speed does it gain?
@Minister; use equation v= sq root(2×eV/m)
Sikandar
what is the reaction of heat on magnet
Magnetization decreases with increase in temperature. But in case of diamagnetic substance heat has no role on magnetization.
srikanta
what is a physical significant of electric dipole moment .
A dipole moment it's a mechanical electrical effect used in nature
Antonio
what is the uses of carbon brushes in generator
to minimize heat
constand
at what temperature is the degree Fahrenheit equal to degree Celsius
Celsius and Faharaneith are different, never equal
Antonio
find their liners express of n=a+b/T² ( plot graph n against T)