14.1 Mutual inductance

 Page 1 / 5
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Correlate two nearby circuits that carry time-varying currents with the emf induced in each circuit
• Describe examples in which mutual inductance may or may not be desirable

Inductance is the property of a device that tells us how effectively it induces an emf in another device. In other words, it is a physical quantity that expresses the effectiveness of a given device.

When two circuits carrying time-varying currents are close to one another, the magnetic flux through each circuit varies because of the changing current I in the other circuit. Consequently, an emf is induced in each circuit by the changing current in the other. This type of emf is therefore called a mutually induced emf , and the phenomenon that occurs is known as mutual inductance ( M ) . As an example, let’s consider two tightly wound coils ( [link] ). Coils 1 and 2 have ${N}_{1}$ and ${N}_{2}$ turns and carry currents ${I}_{1}$ and ${I}_{2},$ respectively. The flux through a single turn of coil 2 produced by the magnetic field of the current in coil 1 is ${\text{Φ}}_{21},$ whereas the flux through a single turn of coil 1 due to the magnetic field of ${I}_{2}$ is ${\text{Φ}}_{12}.$

The mutual inductance ${M}_{21}$ of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is the ratio of the flux through the ${N}_{2}$ turns of coil 2 produced by the magnetic field of the current in coil 1, divided by that current, that is,

${M}_{21}=\frac{{N}_{2}{\text{Φ}}_{21}}{{I}_{1}}.$

Similarly, the mutual inductance of coil 1 with respect to coil 2 is

${M}_{12}=\frac{{N}_{1}{\text{Φ}}_{12}}{{I}_{2}}.$

Like capacitance, mutual inductance is a geometric quantity. It depends on the shapes and relative positions of the two coils, and it is independent of the currents in the coils. The SI unit for mutual inductance M is called the henry (H)    in honor of Joseph Henry (1799–1878), an American scientist who discovered induced emf independently of Faraday. Thus, we have $1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{H}=1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{V}·\text{s/A}$ . From [link] and [link] , we can show that ${M}_{21}={M}_{12},$ so we usually drop the subscripts associated with mutual inductance and write

$M=\frac{{N}_{2}{\text{Φ}}_{21}}{{I}_{1}}=\frac{{N}_{1}{\text{Φ}}_{12}}{{I}_{2}}.$

The emf developed in either coil is found by combining Faraday’s law    and the definition of mutual inductance. Since ${N}_{2}{\text{Φ}}_{21}$ is the total flux through coil 2 due to ${I}_{1}$ , we obtain

${\epsilon }_{2}=-\frac{d}{dt}\left({N}_{2}{\text{Φ}}_{21}\right)=-\frac{d}{dt}\left(M{I}_{1}\right)=\text{−}M\frac{d{I}_{1}}{dt}$

where we have used the fact that M is a time-independent constant because the geometry is time-independent. Similarly, we have

${\epsilon }_{1}=\text{−}M\frac{d{I}_{2}}{dt}.$

In [link] , we can see the significance of the earlier description of mutual inductance ( M ) as a geometric quantity. The value of M neatly encapsulates the physical properties of circuit elements and allows us to separate the physical layout of the circuit from the dynamic quantities, such as the emf and the current. [link] defines the mutual inductance in terms of properties in the circuit, whereas the previous definition of mutual inductance in [link] is defined in terms of the magnetic flux experienced, regardless of circuit elements. You should be careful when using [link] and [link] because ${\epsilon }_{1}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\epsilon }_{2}$ do not necessarily represent the total emfs in the respective coils. Each coil can also have an emf induced in it because of its self-inductance (self-inductance will be discussed in more detail in a later section).

What is vector
Vector is a quantity having a direction as well as magnitude
Damilare
tell me about charging and discharging of capacitors
a big and a small metal spheres are connected by a wire, which of this has the maximum electric potential on the surface.
3 capacitors 2nf,3nf,4nf are connected in parallel... what is the equivalent capacitance...and what is the potential difference across each capacitor if the EMF is 500v
four effect of heat on substances
why we can find a electric mirror image only in a infinite conducting....why not in finite conducting plate..?
because you can't fit the boundary conditions.
Jorge
what is the dimensions for VISCOUNSITY (U)
Branda
what is thermodynamics
the study of heat an other form of energy.
John
heat is internal kinetic energy of a body but it doesnt mean heat is energy contained in a body because heat means transfer of energy due to difference in temperature...and in thermo-dynamics we study cause, effect, application, laws, hypothesis and so on about above mentioned phenomenon in detail.
ing
It is abranch of physical chemistry which deals with the interconversion of all form of energy
Vishal
what is colamb,s law.?
it is a low studied the force between 2 charges F=q.q\r.r
Mostafa
what is the formula of del in cylindrical, polar media
prove that the formula for the unknown resistor is Rx=R2 x R3 divided by R3,when Ig=0.
what is flux
Total number of field lines crossing the surface area
Kamru
Basically flux in general is amount of anything...In Electricity and Magnetism it is the total no..of electric field lines or Magnetic field lines passing normally through the suface
prince
what is temperature change
Celine
a bottle of soft drink was removed from refrigerator and after some time, it was observed that its temperature has increased by 15 degree Celsius, what is the temperature change in degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius
Celine
process whereby the degree of hotness of a body (or medium) changes
Salim
Q=mcΔT
Salim
where The letter "Q" is the heat transferred in an exchange in calories, "m" is the mass of the substance being heated in grams, "c" is its specific heat capacity and the static value, and "ΔT" is its change in temperature in degrees Celsius to reflect the change in temperature.
Salim
what was the temperature of the soft drink when it was removed ?
Salim
15 degree Celsius
Celine
15 degree
Celine
ok I think is just conversion
Salim
15 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
Salim
0 degree Celsius = 32 Fahrenheit
Salim
15 degree Celsius = (15×1.8)+32 =59 Fahrenheit
Salim
I dont understand
Celine
the question said you should convert 15 degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
Salim
To convert temperatures in degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 (or 9/5) and add 32.
Salim
what is d final ans for Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
it said what is temperature change in Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
the 15 is already in Celsius
Salim
So the final answer for Fahrenheit is 59
Salim
what is d final ans for Fahrenheit and Celsius
Celine
what are the effects of placing a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor
increase the capacitance.
Jorge
besides increasing the capacitance, is there any?
Bundi
mechanical stiffness and small size
Jorge
so as to increase the capacitance of a capacitor
Rahma
also to avoid diffusion of charges between the two plate since they are positive and negative.
Prince
why for an ideal gas internal energy is directly proportional to thermodynamics temperature?
two charged particles are 8.45cm apart. They are moved and the force on each of them is found to have tripled. How far are they now?
what is flux
Bundi
Bundi, flux is the number of electric field crossing a surface area
Mubanga
you right
martin,F/F=(r×r)÷(r×r)
Mostafa
determining dimensional correctness
determine dimensional correctness of,T=2π√L/g
PATRICK
somebody help me answer the question above
PATRICK
d=dQ+w