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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Correlate the rate of change of current to the induced emf created by that current in the same circuit
  • Derive the self-inductance for a cylindrical solenoid
  • Derive the self-inductance for a rectangular toroid

Mutual inductance arises when a current in one circuit produces a changing magnetic field that induces an emf in another circuit. But can the magnetic field affect the current in the original circuit that produced the field? The answer is yes, and this is the phenomenon called self-inductance .

Inductors

[link] shows some of the magnetic field lines due to the current in a circular loop of wire. If the current is constant, the magnetic flux through the loop is also constant. However, if the current I were to vary with time—say, immediately after switch S is closed—then the magnetic flux Φ m would correspondingly change. Then Faraday’s law tells us that an emf ε would be induced in the circuit, where

ε = d Φ m d t .

Since the magnetic field due to a current-carrying wire is directly proportional to the current, the flux due to this field is also proportional to the current; that is,

Φ m I .
Figure shows a battery, a resistor, a circular loop of wire and a switch S connected in series with one another, forming a closed circuit. Current I flows through it. Magnetic field lines B are shown going inward around the loop of wire, following the right hand thumb rule.
A magnetic field is produced by the current I in the loop. If I were to vary with time, the magnetic flux through the loop would also vary and an emf would be induced in the loop.

This can also be written as

Φ m = L I

where the constant of proportionality L is known as the self-inductance    of the wire loop. If the loop has N turns, this equation becomes

N Φ m = L I .

By convention, the positive sense of the normal to the loop is related to the current by the right-hand rule, so in [link] , the normal points downward. With this convention, Φ m is positive in [link] , so L always has a positive value .

For a loop with N turns, ε = N d Φ m / d t , so the induced emf may be written in terms of the self-inductance as

ε = L d I d t .

When using this equation to determine L , it is easiest to ignore the signs of ε and d I / d t , and calculate L as

L = | ε | | d I / d t | .

Since self-inductance is associated with the magnetic field produced by a current, any configuration of conductors possesses self-inductance. For example, besides the wire loop, a long, straight wire has self-inductance, as does a coaxial cable. A coaxial cable is most commonly used by the cable television industry and may also be found connecting to your cable modem. Coaxial cables are used due to their ability to transmit electrical signals with minimal distortions. Coaxial cables have two long cylindrical conductors that possess current and a self-inductance that may have undesirable effects.

A circuit element used to provide self-inductance is known as an inductor    . It is represented by the symbol shown in [link] , which resembles a coil of wire, the basic form of the inductor. [link] shows several types of inductors commonly used in circuits.

A horizontal line makes four complete loops below its x axis.
Symbol used to represent an inductor in a circuit.
Photograph of a variety of inductors.
A variety of inductors. Whether they are encapsulated like the top three shown or wound around in a coil like the bottom-most one, each is simply a relatively long coil of wire. (credit: Windell Oskay)

Questions & Answers

what is calorimeter
odionyenma Reply
heat measuring device
Suvransu
What is mean electric potential
Biren Reply
Electric density formula
Biren Reply
Int E•dA
Vineet
what is relation betweeen potential energy of a system and work done in bringing last chaege from infinity
Shikhar Reply
Einstein and his general theory of relativity, a very nice concept,which revolutionize our modern world.
Antares Reply
what's the theory of relativity?
Piyali
it related to universe time period
jyotirmayee
it is a theory in which time is taken as relative,for diff. motion of objects.
Antares
no !!!
jyotirmayee
it is E=mc'square
jyotirmayee
what is black hole?
jyotirmayee
E=mc^2 is just a reln which sums up everything dude
Antares
what does e=mc^2 stand for?explain
Piyali
m not dude
jyotirmayee
e for speed of light
jyotirmayee
c for speed of light
jyotirmayee
m for mass of object
jyotirmayee
black hole is a super massive object in space gravitation pull of which s so strong dt evn light cannot escape. John wheeler 1st detected it, n concept of it ws given by Einstein himself from his general theory of relativity. Basically v cn si 3 types of it super massive, interstellar n intermediate
Antares
which topic now u studying?
jyotirmayee
e defined? sorry it,s wrong
jyotirmayee
Why?
Arzoodan
how black holes r formed?
Piyali
e is not speed of light
jyotirmayee
black holes formed when the centre of very massive star collapsed itself
jyotirmayee
e is energy.
Antares
what do u mean by quantum mechanics?
jyotirmayee
in most of d cases black holes r formed by massive collapsed star or star system
Antares
sahoo u don't seem to understand relative physics, plz study that first.
Antares
exatly...
Arzoodan
Apollo is the name of a satellite !!!!!
jyotirmayee
quantum mechanics is d study of physics describing nature at d smallest level of energy of atoms n subatomic particles.
Antares
qm means explains about the microscopic particles..
KRANTHI
nope name of d sun god
Antares
why the mercury used in thermometers?
jyotirmayee
Ali brother ur exactly spelling is wrong,,,,,
jyotirmayee
why the colour of tube light white?
jyotirmayee
why the mouth became red colour ,,by the regular eating of leaf called ,,betel combining with areca?
jyotirmayee
all formula for calculate specific latent heat of any substance
Idowu Reply
hello
Nigar
Hi, your real Nigga...? Or this jock?
Arzoodan
real
Nigar
You from Pakistan or India?
Arzoodan
c'mon guys.. let's talk Physics.
Yoblaze
mass multiplied with latent heat of a substance
Yoblaze
What you doing about Physics
Arzoodan
you both?
jyotirmayee
in which class?
jyotirmayee
physics is the only subject which underestimated chemistry ,,bio
jyotirmayee
how capacitor is made in inst?
Piyali
what is dipole moment
Bilal Reply
it is the product of electric charges and distance between the two charges
Shikhar
yeap. this correct answer...
Arzoodan
mishra true thanks dia
Ssempala
product of separation of the poles, the rest shikhar got is right
Brad
brad is separation and distance ,are they different?
Ssempala
What is dielectric
Ashis Reply
its a type of medium. generally poor conductors. but their conductivity can be changed
vedanth
you just have to add impurities
vedanth
Thanks
Ssempala
grt
Ssempala
a material which behave as conductor
Shikhar
insulating material, energy level for electron transfer is very high e.g used to increase a magnetic field in a capacitor
Brad
What is the difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity? Give the equations
elly Reply
presentation on power
Dyutee Reply
relation between Celsius and Kelvin
Anish Reply
0" degree Celsius=273kelvin
jyotirmayee
Newton's second laws is call with
Dyutee Reply
what is mean by thermodynamics
Prasad Reply
it is study about temperature and it's equilibrium
thiru
Its the study of heat and its relation with others kind of energy
Antonio
state caulombs law clearly
constand Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
ezra Reply
show mathematically that an electron has the greater speed than the proton when they attract each other
srikanta
@ezra & srikanta; for electrons: a=ke^2/(mr^2) and for protons: a=kp^2/(mr^2)
Sikandar
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 2. OpenStax CNX. Oct 06, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12074/1.3
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