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  • Observe heat transfer and change in temperature and mass.
  • Calculate final temperature after heat transfer between two objects.

One of the major effects of heat transfer is temperature change: heating increases the temperature while cooling decreases it. We assume that there is no phase change and that no work is done on or by the system. Experiments show that the transferred heat depends on three factors—the change in temperature, the mass of the system, and the substance and phase of the substance.

Figure a shows a copper-colored cylinder of mass m and temperature change delta T. The heat Q, shown as a wavy rightward horizontal arrow, is transferred to the cylinder from the left. To the right of this image is a similar image, except that the heat transferred Q prime is twice the heat Q. The temperature change of this second cylinder, which is also labeled m, is two delta T. This cylinder is surrounded by small black wavy lines radiating outward. Figure b shows the same two cylinders as in Figure a. The left cylinder is labeled m and delta T and has a wavy heat arrow pointing at it from the left that is labeled Q. The right cylinder is labeled two m and delta T and has a wavy heat arrow pointing to it from the left labeled Q prime equals two Q. Figure c shows the same copper cylinder of mass m and with temperature change delta T, with heat Q being transferred to it. To the right of this cylinder, Q prime equals ten point eight times Q is being transferred to another cylinder filled with water whose mass and change in temperature are the same as that of the copper cylinder.
The heat Q size 12{Q} {} transferred to cause a temperature change depends on the magnitude of the temperature change, the mass of the system, and the substance and phase involved. (a) The amount of heat transferred is directly proportional to the temperature change. To double the temperature change of a mass m size 12{m} {} , you need to add twice the heat. (b) The amount of heat transferred is also directly proportional to the mass. To cause an equivalent temperature change in a doubled mass, you need to add twice the heat. (c) The amount of heat transferred depends on the substance and its phase. If it takes an amount Q size 12{Q} {} of heat to cause a temperature change Δ T size 12{ΔT} {} in a given mass of copper, it will take 10.8 times that amount of heat to cause the equivalent temperature change in the same mass of water assuming no phase change in either substance.

The dependence on temperature change and mass are easily understood. Owing to the fact that the (average) kinetic energy of an atom or molecule is proportional to the absolute temperature, the internal energy of a system is proportional to the absolute temperature and the number of atoms or molecules. Owing to the fact that the transferred heat is equal to the change in the internal energy, the heat is proportional to the mass of the substance and the temperature change. The transferred heat also depends on the substance so that, for example, the heat necessary to raise the temperature is less for alcohol than for water. For the same substance, the transferred heat also depends on the phase (gas, liquid, or solid).

Heat transfer and temperature change

The quantitative relationship between heat transfer and temperature change contains all three factors:

Q = mc Δ T , size 12{Q= ital "mc"ΔT,} {}

where Q size 12{Q} {} is the symbol for heat transfer, m size 12{m} {} is the mass of the substance, and Δ T is the change in temperature. The symbol c size 12{c} {} stands for specific heat    and depends on the material and phase. The specific heat is the amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of mass by 1 .00ºC . The specific heat c is a property of the substance; its SI unit is J/ ( kg K ) or J/ ( kg ⋅ºC ). Recall that the temperature change ( Δ T ) is the same in units of kelvin and degrees Celsius. If heat transfer is measured in kilocalories, then the unit of specific heat is kcal/ ( kg ⋅ºC ).

Values of specific heat must generally be looked up in tables, because there is no simple way to calculate them. In general, the specific heat also depends on the temperature. [link] lists representative values of specific heat for various substances. Except for gases, the temperature and volume dependence of the specific heat of most substances is weak. We see from this table that the specific heat of water is five times that of glass and ten times that of iron, which means that it takes five times as much heat to raise the temperature of water the same amount as for glass and ten times as much heat to raise the temperature of water as for iron. In fact, water has one of the largest specific heats of any material, which is important for sustaining life on Earth.

Questions & Answers

Give an example (but not one from the text) of a device used to measure time and identify what change in that device indicates a change in time.
David Reply
hour glass, pendulum clock, atomic clock?
how did they solve for "t" after getting 67.6=.5(Voy + 0)t
Martin Reply
Find the following for path D in [link] : (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.
David Reply
the topic is kinematics
can i get notes of solid state physics
just check the chpt. 13 kinetic theory of matter it's there
is acceleration a fundamental unit.
David Reply
no it is derived
K thanks
hi guys can you teach me how to solve a logarithm?
Villaflor Reply
how about a conceptual framework can you simplify for me? needed please
Hello what happens when electrone stops its rotation around its nucleus if it possible how
I think they are constantly moving
yep what is problem you are stuck into context?
not possible to fix electron position in space,
yes of course Villa flor
equations of kinematics for constant acceleration
Sagcurse Reply
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
Lila Reply
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is density=mass/volume Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury: Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000 mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
the latter is true
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Emmanuel Reply
who can help me with my problem about acceleration?
Vann Reply
how to solve this... a car is heading north then smoothly made a westward turn during the travel the speed of the car remains constant at 1.5km/h what is the acceleration of the car? the total travel time of the car as it smoothly changed its direction is 15 minutes
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
who can help me with a relative density question
1cm3 sample of tin lead alloy has mass 8.5g.the relative density of tin is 7.3 and that of lead is 11.3.calculate the percentage by weight of tin in the alloy. assuming that there is no change of volume when the metals formed the alloy
morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
adefenwa Reply
hi what is physical education?
BPED..is my course.
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
how to calculate velocity
Okwethu Reply
his about the speed?
how about speed
hello bro hw is life with you
Jacob Reply
Mine is good. How about you?
Hi room of engineers
lawan Reply
yes,hi sir
so, what is going on here
u are all wlc just ask your question anybody. can answer
good morning ppl
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
Riaz Reply
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
yea you are right
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
I guess that's it
later people
mathematics is everywhere
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
A hydrometer of mass 0.15kg and uniform cross sectional area of 0.0025m2 displaced in water of density 1000kg/m3.what depth will the hydrometer sink
16.66 meters?
,i have a question of let me give answer
the mass is stretched a distance of 8cm and held what is the potential energy? quick answer
oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door
Olatunji Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

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