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  • Define heat as transfer of energy.

In Work, Energy, and Energy Resources , we defined work as force times distance and learned that work done on an object changes its kinetic energy. We also saw in Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws that temperature is proportional to the (average) kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. We say that a thermal system has a certain internal energy: its internal energy is higher if the temperature is higher. If two objects at different temperatures are brought in contact with each other, energy is transferred from the hotter to the colder object until equilibrium is reached and the bodies reach thermal equilibrium (i.e., they are at the same temperature). No work is done by either object, because no force acts through a distance. The transfer of energy is caused by the temperature difference, and ceases once the temperatures are equal. These observations lead to the following definition of heat    : Heat is the spontaneous transfer of energy due to a temperature difference.

As noted in Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws , heat is often confused with temperature. For example, we may say the heat was unbearable, when we actually mean that the temperature was high. Heat is a form of energy, whereas temperature is not. The misconception arises because we are sensitive to the flow of heat, rather than the temperature.

Owing to the fact that heat is a form of energy, it has the SI unit of joule (J). The calorie (cal) is a common unit of energy, defined as the energy needed to change the temperature of 1.00 g of water by 1 .00ºC —specifically, between 14 . 5ºC and 15 . 5ºC , since there is a slight temperature dependence. Perhaps the most common unit of heat is the kilocalorie    (kcal), which is the energy needed to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of water by 1 . 00ºC . Since mass is most often specified in kilograms, kilocalorie is commonly used. Food calories (given the notation Cal, and sometimes called “big calorie”) are actually kilocalories ( 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories ), a fact not easily determined from package labeling.

In figure a there is a soft drink can and an ice cube placed on a surface at a distance from each other. The temperatures of the can and the ice cube are T one and T two, respectively, where T one is not equal to T two. In figure b, the soft drink can and the ice cube are placed in contact on the surface. The temperature of both is T prime.
In figure (a) the soft drink and the ice have different temperatures, T 1 and T 2 , and are not in thermal equilibrium. In figure (b), when the soft drink and ice are allowed to interact, energy is transferred until they reach the same temperature T , achieving equilibrium. Heat transfer occurs due to the difference in temperatures. In fact, since the soft drink and ice are both in contact with the surrounding air and bench, the equilibrium temperature will be the same for both.

Mechanical equivalent of heat

It is also possible to change the temperature of a substance by doing work. Work can transfer energy into or out of a system. This realization helped establish the fact that heat is a form of energy. James Prescott Joule (1818–1889) performed many experiments to establish the mechanical equivalent of heat    — the work needed to produce the same effects as heat transfer . In terms of the units used for these two terms, the best modern value for this equivalence is

1 . 000 kcal = 4186 J . size 12{1 "." "000"`"kcal"="4186"`J "." } {}

We consider this equation as the conversion between two different units of energy.

In the figure, there is a can of known volume full of water and fitted with a thermometer at the top. On both sides of the can two blocks of weight W each hang from cords. The cords pass over two pulleys and wind around a cylindrical roller. There is a handle attached with the roller to rotate it manually. Submerged in the water are some paddles attached to a vertical rod attached at the bottom of the roller. When the lever is rotated, the paddles move inside the water.
Schematic depiction of Joule’s experiment that established the equivalence of heat and work.

The figure above shows one of Joule’s most famous experimental setups for demonstrating the mechanical equivalent of heat. It demonstrated that work and heat can produce the same effects, and helped establish the principle of conservation of energy. Gravitational potential energy (PE) (work done by the gravitational force) is converted into kinetic energy (KE), and then randomized by viscosity and turbulence into increased average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in the system, producing a temperature increase. His contributions to the field of thermodynamics were so significant that the SI unit of energy was named after him.

Heat added or removed from a system changes its internal energy and thus its temperature. Such a temperature increase is observed while cooking. However, adding heat does not necessarily increase the temperature. An example is melting of ice; that is, when a substance changes from one phase to another. Work done on the system or by the system can also change the internal energy of the system. Joule demonstrated that the temperature of a system can be increased by stirring. If an ice cube is rubbed against a rough surface, work is done by the frictional force. A system has a well-defined internal energy, but we cannot say that it has a certain “heat content” or “work content”. We use the phrase “heat transfer” to emphasize its nature.

Two samples (A and B) of the same substance are kept in a lab. Someone adds 10 kilojoules (kJ) of heat to one sample, while 10 kJ of work is done on the other sample. How can you tell to which sample the heat was added?

Heat and work both change the internal energy of the substance. However, the properties of the sample only depend on the internal energy so that it is impossible to tell whether heat was added to sample A or B.

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  • Heat and work are the two distinct methods of energy transfer.
  • Heat is energy transferred solely due to a temperature difference.
  • Any energy unit can be used for heat transfer, and the most common are kilocalorie (kcal) and joule (J).
  • Kilocalorie is defined to be the energy needed to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of water between 14 . 5ºC and 15 . 5ºC .
  • The mechanical equivalent of this heat transfer is 1 .00 kcal = 4186 J.

Conceptual questions

How is heat transfer related to temperature?

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Describe a situation in which heat transfer occurs. What are the resulting forms of energy?

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When heat transfers into a system, is the energy stored as heat? Explain briefly.

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Questions & Answers

what is motion
Juliet Reply
a motion is the change in position of an object copmaring to a fixed point
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...), exchange phone numbers, email addresses or ask for personal information on our platform.
QuizOver Reply
can u explain the term displacement in another form
Chukwudebelu Reply
displacement is the change in position of an object
this is the a average distance covered
change in position with respect to reference point
resultant of position vectors or difference of position vectors of a moving object
Distance with a directional component.
displacement is the difference between your final and initial positions independent of the path taken. distance is how far you actually moved.
is the acceleration ever in the same direction as a component of velocity
Singut Reply
what is gravity
A 12V battery has a 1ohm resistor in series with a parallel system of 3ohms and 6ohms. How much current is going through the 3ohm resistor?
Ingrid Reply
Total circuit current, I=12/3=4 amperes this means that 8v will be across the parallel resistors. Current through the 3 ohms is 8/3 amperes
How do you know there is 8v across the parallel resistors?
good question
Answer na
3//6 combined is 2 ohms. Total cct R is 3 ohms, I=V/R=4amps. V across 3//6 is therefore = I x R = 8 volts.
a particle f suspended by two strings passing over smooth pulley isattached to two other particles q and r .. calculate the masses of p and q if mass of r is 2 kg
Lekunga Reply
what is hall effect and what are its applications?
Saif-ur-Rehman Reply
It's under sound wave
for speed detection.i.e speed of current
speed of the current is nothing but voltage
a uniform rod of length 3m is suspended at one end about an axis perpendicular to its length and it has mass of 2kg and an inertial of 6kgm^2. if the uniform rod was initially at horizontal. calculate its angular velocity when it is at an angle of 30° to the horizontal? please show your workings?
Olalekan Reply
The rotational kinetic energy will equal the gpe lost by the beam as its centre of mass falls 3sin(30)=1.5m. You should get 10^(1/2) for omega but check it on paper.
the answer you gave is actually incorrect! can you check for any mistake
The centre of mass is at the centre of the beam so will have fallen 0.75m so that will reduce the overall angular speed.
okay.... does it mean the centre of mass itself has its own particular height? please explain to me sir... am confused!
During a race on an oval track, a car travels at an average speed of 200km/hr. Determine its average velocity at the end of its third lap
Jubril Reply
it's average velocity is zero
does it matter that the track is elliptical instead of circular?
"lap" just means that you end up where you started from
so it could be elliptical, triangular, square: in any shape you like!
absolutely right shape doesn't matter
what is mean fluid
Purushotham Reply
which is capable of changing its shape or something which is viscous in nature
fluid is a substance which deforms and flows when we apply small shear force
Father of science is who?
David Reply
why doesn't the initial position of the teacher or professor always start from zero ?
Martin Reply
I always come across question like that how can I defined Newton's law of cooling.....?
kirchoff laws says what
Nana Reply
who is the father of Electricity
Ayomide Reply
Michael Faraday
William Gilbert
Alessandro Volta
Practice Key Terms 3

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