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Furthermore, when it is insufficient, social insects can’t rely exclusively on the information they receive from their nest mates and must employ certain techniques to account for discrepancies. The receivers of communication must also know when to disregard signals or compare multiple sources or sometimes the received information with their own personal knowledge. Different species of insects, based on prior experience at food sources, can choose to disregard certain sensory signals and even interpret them differently when the quality of resource changes. For example, stingless bees will mark food sources with either attractant or repellent chemical signals that can be disregarded if the profitability at a particular resource location changes (Sánchez et al. 2007). Ants cannot rely solely on the tandem run, where they carefully guide a worker to a food source or nest site, and even the highly specialized honeybee waggle dance is not perfectly precise. These methods of communication must be supplemented by additional information such as the carried scent of a particular food resource and forager’s prior experience at a resource location. We will look into exactly how different species of social insects communicate locations of resources, change particular roles, and how they are able to deal with the issues of incomplete or imprecise information when recruiting and foraging.

Reinterpreting multimodal signals by stingless bees&Bumblebees

Stingless bees, which have a simpler communication system than honeybees, use methods of pheromone or scent trails, pilot flights and vibration cues to guide recruits to new resources. Olfaction and the used of attractant and repellent chemicals on food sources is the principle means of forager recruitment (Nieh 2003). Boogert et al. (2005) showed that the stingless bee Trigona corvina was even able to interpret the attractant and repellent signals of different bee species. However, they must be at the resource for these signals to be of any use. To lead them towards the resource from the hive, the guides make quick flights, or pilot runs, through the group of recruits to keep them together and show them the way towards the new resource (Aguilar et al. 2005). When they become lost in transit or they receive incomplete information, they can cope with this by incorporating multimodal signals in decision-making (Kulahci et al. 2008). Kulahci et al. (2008) performed experiments that showed that bumblebees trained on food sources having both visual and olfactory cues were more accurate in their selection of profitable food sources. Stingless bees use pheromone trails close to the food source to aid in final orientation of the new recruit, and it is speculated that spatial information can be communicated within the hive through antennal contact and vibrations (Nieh 2003). Hrncir et al. (2005) also found that specific thoracic vibrations of the stingless bee Melipona seminigra may be a method by which to communicate resource location. They found the intensity of the signal was directly related to the energy output during a foraging run, meaning the weaker the vibration the longer the distance traveled.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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