<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

A bee recruit must therefore decide which signals to follow in a particular situation, and the more the better. However, the more sensory input processed by the bee, the longer it takes to make a decision. This is called the speed-accuracy trade-off (Kulahci et al. 2008). A bee may therefore prefer to use a quicker single mode when foraging near a nest site, whereas when a food source is farther and more difficult to find, olfactory and visual signals can be used together, especially if the resource is highly profitable. This is called the efficacy trade-off hypothesis (Hebets&Rapaj 2005). Once learned, if the quality and benefit of the resource is high enough, it will outweigh the cost of increased sensory input (Kulahci et al. 2008). In Cameron’s study, even bumblebees were shown to mark profitable food sources with sucrose rewards to entice and recruit fellow foragers. What is interesting is that they were capable of interpreting these positive signals as negative once the food source had become unprofitable (1981). Scaptotrigona mexicana , a stingless bee species, can also associate the same pheromone marker as both a negative or positive signal depending on food source quality (Sánchez et al. 2008). They are thus able to interpret the same signal in different ways, suggesting the ability for individual decision-making and the capacity for experienced-based learning.

The honeybee’s (apis mellifera) waggle-dance

Bumblebees and stingless bees implement various modalities of communication but none are as advanced as the unique dance strategies of honeybees. Honeybees have evolved separate forms of communication that are influenced by their foraging and nesting environment and their brood size. A returning honeybee scout must communicate to the rest of the hive the location of a newly found food source or a potential nest site. They execute a ‘Waggle Dance’ where the scout performs quick forward moving abdominal vibrations as it crawls in straight line across the surface of the comb. It returns in semicircles of alternating directions to its starting place and then begins again a variable number of times (De Marco&Menzel 2005). It is an advertisement for the distance and direction of a new resource completed in a cyclical figure-eight pattern. Dance observers group closely together around the dancer, often coming in contact with her, thereby registering the source’s odor and often receiving samples of food that the forager has returned with (Hölldobler&Wilson 2009).

The length of the waggle phase depends directly on the distance to the resource. The longer the waggle face, the farther the resource is from the colony. The direction is also encoded in the angle of the dance (Von Frisch 1974)(De Marco&Menzel 2005). The returning foragers situate themselves on the ‘dance floor’ and begin a waggle phase in the direction of the food source with the sun as their azimuth. The length of the run is directly linked to the distance to the source (Beekman et al. 2008): the longer the tail-wagging period in the forward-moving part of the dance, the greater the advertised distance (Von Frisch 1974).

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?