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An interesting debate has developed in the field of engineering ethics about standards of due care. Larry May sets forth a standard of minimal care which is a threshold below which an engineer cannot fall without incurring negligence. While the law is adept at establishing a minimal level of acceptable care, engineers as professionals should be held to higher standards. Hence, Harris, Pritchard, and Rabins in an influential textbook on engineering ethics, Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, argue for higher standards of care such as normal or reasonable care, good works, and exemplary care. Engineers should be encourage to explore higher levels of care and responsibility; but this is held back by the specter of blame. It is certainly appropriate to hold engineers responsible and blameworthy for failure to live up to minimum standards of care and practice. But above this level, when should blame drop out. Certainly engineers who fall below reasonable or normal standards exhibit moral deficiency. (The term comes from Ladd.) But what about taking on tasks that are above and beyond the call of duty? Suppose an engineer elects not to bring about a good work or make a substantial self-sacrifice to obtain a community good. Certainly such an action cannot be blameworthy since it falls well above the minimum threshold of acceptable practice. Nor does it seem to admit of moral deficiency. Hence, as responsibility is projected into increasingly positive and supererogatory space, what terms should we employ to replace blame, punishment, and moral deficiency? See Martin Curd and Larry May, "Professional Responsibility for Harmful Actions" in Module Series in Applied Ethics , Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, Illinois Institute of Technology Kendall/Hunt, 1984. See also Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases , Chapter 5.

    Criminal responsibility

  • This area of the law applies to human individuals.
  • To prevail in a criminal trial, one must first prove mens rea or a guilty mind. This is essentially an intention to break the law, to commit the crime in question.
  • It is also necessary to prove that the target of a criminal suit have actually committed the guilty, law-breaking action, termed an actus reus .
  • Finally, it is necessary to prove that the mens rea caused and guided the execution of the actus reus

    Back to o.j. simpson

  • Reflecting on the trial of O.J. Simpson can help distinguish burden of proof in a civil and criminal law. Burden of proof is what the plaintiff has to prove to prevail against the accused or defendant. In a criminal trial, the burden of proof is set quite high. (Why do you suppose this would be?) The prosecution has to prove the defendant guilty "beyond a reasonable doubt." It is lower in a civil trial where the plaintiff only has to prove the case against the defendant by establishing a "preponderance of evidence." This is largely quantative; if 51% of the evidence falls on the side of the plaintiff, then the case against the defendant stands.
  • OJ Simpson was found innocent in the criminal trial. The prosecutors were unable to establish his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
  • But in the civil trial, his accusers were able to accumulate a preponderance of evidence against him. The difference in burden of proof thus explains why Simpson lost the civil trial but won the criminal trial.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Engineering ethics modules for ethics across the curriculum. OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10552/1.3
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