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Metaphorical structure

Responsibility is metaphorically structured. Metaphor, for Johnson and Lakoff, is more than just a figure of speech. It is a projection of meaning and structure from one domain, a familiar experience termed the source domain , onto another less familiar domain termed the target domain . Seeing the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar or extending existing meaning and experience to cover new regions, represents, for Johnson and Lakoff, a fundamental imaginative activity. So, our experience of physical forces and their interactions is encapsulated into the image schema, stimulus-response. Then this basic structure is projected onto the moral domain: stimulus-response becomes perception of relevance-response to relevance. This projection doesn't merely repeat the original experience; it does not reduce the moral to the physical. Stimulus-response is expanded by the insertion of moral content. Stimulus becomes sensitivity to what is morally salient in a situation; we use perceptual and emotional sensitivities and skills to zero in on the moral aspects of a complex situation. Response, when projected onto the moral domain, is no longer unthinking, automatic; now it becomes the formulation of action that is calibrated to moral salience. This metaphorical structure of responsibility is subject to further elaborations. As you will see in the exercises below, responsibility begins as a punitive response to failure to achieve the minimally moral. We blame an engineer for an accident when it results from her failure to exercise even minimal due care in the design and testing of a product. But, through repeated metaphorical projections, moral repsonsibility is repeatedly elaborated onto higher and higher moral spaces as the pursuit of excellence, not just the avoidance of blame. In short, the metaphorical elaboration of the root meaning of responsibility allows us to see continuity between its negative, reactive, and blame-center forms and more advanced positive, proactive, and supererogatory praise-worthy forms. Just below is a slide that taken from a presentation given by the author on "Teaching Moral Responsibility" at the annual meeting of the Association of Practical and Professional Ethics, March 2012; it shows the elaboration of moral responsibility through the repeated projeections of the image schema stimulus-response or the experience of physical force and its interactions. (This account of responsibilty as a metaphor is taken from Mark Johnson, The Body in the Mind, p. 14. See other Johnson references listed below.)

Responsibility as Metaphor.

Positive and negative senses of responsibility

Negative rsponsibility

The negative sense focuses on assigning blame for the untoward. (Untoward means something negative like harmful or unduely risky, etc.) This sense of responsibility works, primarily, from the threshold of the morally minimum. If you are below this threshold, several things happen: you are subjective to reactive attitudes (resentment, indignation, guilt), blame or approbation, and punishment. It is this sense that Bradley had in mind when he asserted that "repsonsibliity is necessarily connected to punishment." In this domain, the goal is to stay out of trouble which is the same as staying above the minmally moral. Good enough to stay out of trouble but not really good. (Hobbes, in Calvin and Hobbes, tells Santa Clause that he has not committed any murders or robbed any banks this year. Hobbes tells him that this might not be enough; not doing wrong does not fully constitute doing good.)

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Engineering ethics modules for ethics across the curriculum. OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10552/1.3
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