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This was a century of great Roman activity. By 290 B.C. all territory of the Sabines had come under Roman rule, and after the battle of Lake Vadimo about 280 B.C. the Samnite resistance was crushed and Rome controlled all the harbors of Italy as well as having perhaps 40,000 slave-captives. In 281 B.C. a Roman general had also triumphed over Etruscan Volsinii and Vulci. Italy was densely populated by a hardy peasantry, which gave the Romans a dependable pool of military man-power. Their labor force, like the Greeks before them, was slaves. Rome, too, was a slave society. (Ref. 249 )


In the meantime, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus in the Balkans, and a kinsman of Alexander the Great, responded to pleas of the Greek city-states of Syracuse (Sicily) and Tarentum on the heel of the boot and helped them fight the Romans for control of south Italy. Rome was even joined by Carthage in this particular fight, in the attempt to keep Pyrrhus out of Sicily. King Pyrrhus brought 25,OOO men and many elephants which terrified the Italians and he initially won some victories at Heraclea (280 B.C.) and Asculum (279 B.C.) but lost many men and much strength, so that by 275 Rome had won and had reached the toe and heel of the boot of Italy. Carthage still held the western end of Sicily. (Ref. 8 , 28 )

By 260 B.C. Rome controlled 10,000 square miles of Italy, and with her allies another 52,000 square miles. It had about 292,000 men and its allies about 750,000, with a total population of about 3,000,000. This powerful confederacy had now become a potential challenge to Carthage and war between the two great powers broke out in 264 B.C. This First Punic War began a century of warfare for the mastery of the Mediterranean. With Hamilcar (see footnote on page 243) leading the Carthaginians and Regulus becoming the Roman hero, this was essentially a series of gigantic sea battles with a few land skirmishes in Sicily and the southern tip of Italy. The Romans won the sea battles by the "corvus", a boarding crane that allowed their soldiers to board the Carthaginian ships. (See NORTH CENTRAL AFRICA, earlier in this chapter, page 233). Carthage sued for peace in 241 B.C., giving Sicily to Rome and removing restrictions on Roman trade in the Mediterranean. In the next four years, while Carthage was torn by a bloody internal revolution, Rome took Sardinia and Corsica in treaty violations. (Ref. 48 , 8 )

These treaty violations set the stage for the Second Punic War beginning in 219 B.C. and continuing until 201. The Carthaginian General Hannibal (See footnote on page 243) entered Spain, enlisted Gaul mercenaries

14,000 Gaul mercenaries signed up with Hannibal and in addition a whole series of Celtic units in the Roma legions killed their officers and taking their victims heads along, deserted to the Carthaginians. (Ref. 91 )
, got help from Macedonia and Sicily, crossed the Alps with men and elephants, conquered most of Italy except Rome itself, and in a final winter, bedded his army down in Capua, south of Rome. He was poorly supplied from Carthage through Tarentum, which had fallen in 209 B.C. and his troops now seemed to lose their vigor. (Ref. 229 ) In 202 B.C. Hannibal was called back to Carthage where he was finally defeated by the Roman General Scipio, who was helped by Numidian cavalry under King Massinissa. In the end, Rome controlled all of Italy and Spain, but it was a costly war which changed Roman life considerably. There was an increase in urbanity with damage to the concept of democracy and the beginning of imperialistic expansion. Other factors may have played additional roles in the ending of rural simplicity. Apparently a declining rainfall about 250 B.C. provoked a marked decrease in the flow of Italian rivers, with resulting formation of mosquito-breeding marshes and stagnant pools. The mosquitoes, in turn, brought malaria. Grain production dropped and the grapevine and the olive began to be the big crops, so that even when the rains returned late in the century, Rome was already dependent forever on imported grain. The tens of thousands of slaves obtained in warfare augmented the slave society. But the capstone and triumph of Roman democracy also occurred in this century with the Lex Hortensia, in 287 B.C., a law in which the Senate agreed that decisions of the tribal assembly should have the force of law, even when contrary to the resolutions of the Senate.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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