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NOTE: Insert 25. THE PUNIC WARS 264-146 B.C.

In Sicily it was the time of Archimedes and his great scientific accomplishments. When King Hiero of Syracuse went over to Hannibal's side in the Second Punic War, the Romans sieged Syracuse and Archimedes' invention of the water screw held the Romans at bay for some time. In the final attack on the city in 212 B.C., however, the scientist was killed. He had already established the laws of levers, methods of measurement of a sphere and a cylinder, the value of Pi and various laws of hydrostatics. He had either studied in Alexandria or had been in close contact with scholars from there.

Central europe

The Celtic settlement of Austria was well under way by 279 B.C. and the great salt mines of Salzburg and adjacent areas were in operation. A tribe called "Teutones" had settled close to the Main River and some have interpreted this to mean that Germanic tribes were already in this area, but these were actually simply another Celtic tribe, and the true Teutonic or Germanic tribes had not yet left the northern reaches of Germany.

Western europe

Spain and portugal

In the first half of the century Spain was essentially under the control of Carthage and there were various wars of the local Iberian, Ligurian and Celtic tribes against these overlords. The First Punic War had stimulated the Carthaginians to increase their dominance of Iberia. In 238 B.C. after the first Punic war, Hamilcar Barcal crossed to Spain and recaptured those cities for Carthage whose allegiance had lapsed during the war years. Tradition has it that he founded Barcelona and Cartagena and that in accordance with his recommendations to his troops to intermarry with the natives, his own son, Hannibal, did so. He died during a charge against a Spanish tribe and Hasdrubal

There were generals named Hamilcar, Hannibal and Hasdrubal in the 5th century B.C. as well as these apparent descendants in this 3rd century B.C.
, nephew of Hamilcar, continued a three year campaign and then signed a treaty at Cartagena with Roman envoys agreeing not to go north of the Ebro River. Rome feared Carthaginian alliance with the Celts in the Pyrenees. By 221 B.C., however, Hamilcar's son, Hannibal, incorporating many Iberians in his army had captured Roman-Greek Saguntum on the east coast and precipitated the Second Punic War. By 218 B.C. Hannibal had crossed the Pyrenees to advance through France to Italy.

The Roman General Scipio the elder went from his home in Rome to Spain to fight the rear guard of the Carthaginian army which was still under the command of Hasdrubal and by 205 B.C. Spain had become a Roman province although the complete conquest actually took another 200 years with heavy toll in men and money because of constant guerilla warfare. Scipio, however, took his army to Africa to attack Carthage directly. It was his son, Scipio Africanus, however, who fought the final battles in Africa. (Ref. 91 , 196 )

France and netherlands&Belgium

As previously mentioned concerning the Celts in general, the Gauls bleached their hair and wore jewelry but they were also vicious fighters, charging into battle some- times wearing chain mail and sometimes naked or wearing only collars and bracelets and formidable mustaches. Some were very tall, fair-haired and blue-eyed and may have been a ruling class over other shorter and dark-haired people. As did their central European brothers, they cut off their enemies heads and hung them around their horses necks, often later lining the skulls of enemy generals with gold. When not fighting they feasted, drank and hunted. The Gallic women of ten fought beside their men (See Queen Boadicca in 1st century C.E. under BRITISH ISLES). On their southern flanks the Celtic tribes were showing a gradual rising of their cultural level as contact was made with the southern civilizations, particularly Rome. (Ref. 194 )

British isles

The new waves of La Tene Celts were even more warlike than their predecessors and became a warrior aristocracy in Wales and Cornwall. The Welsh and Cornish languages are survivors of these gifted, virile people who were prone to inter-tribal warfare and dynastic feuds. They squandered their force in endless competitiveness. Barry Fell (Ref. 66 ) has allegedly translated an ancient Irish manuscript of the 2nd century B.C. which appears to be a copy of a 3rd century document, because of reference to certain Italian and Sicilian coins of the latter century, and which appears to be a code of laws for Irish Celts, written by a Spanish Gael. This would indicate a much earlier presence of Celts in Ireland then usually stated. The Picts of Scotland were never a united people in these early centuries and the tribes warred with each other constantly.

Scandinavia

Scandinavian tribes continued to expand and this may have been the period when they displaced a Mongolian people akin to or antecedents of the Laplanders and Esquimos, pushing them into the frozen north.

Eastern europe

Southern Russia and the Eurasian steppe was still the breeding ground of various barbarian Aryan tribes which periodically moved toward Europe proper and down into southwestern Asia. The Scythians were gradually being replaced by their racial and linguistic kinsmen, the Samaritans, about whom we have written previously.

Forward to Europe: 200 to 101 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
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Asali
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Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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