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Finally, in 1984, Congressman Don Fuqua (D-FL), Chairman of the House Committee on Science and Technology, announced formation of an eighteen-member bipartisan task force to conduct a two-year review of critical national science policy issues. At first, the task force review was billed as the first comprehensive study of national science policy since the 1945 Bush report (evidently forgetting the extensive congressional hearings that had preceded the Science Policy Act). But its agenda was limited primarily to policy-for-science issues and focused heavily on problems of concern primarily to universities. By the time Fuqua retired in 1986, his task force had produced twenty-four volumes of hearing transcripts and thirteen commissioned background volumes. While these provide valuable source material for historians and students of the congressional process, they had little discernible impact on executive or congressional science policy.

Part of the problem in Congress was due to fractured jurisdiction. The House Science and Technology Committee lacked oversight authority over several agencies whose activities and expenditures comprised a major share of the federal R&D enterprise. Oversight authority for the Departments of Defense and Agriculture and the National Institutes of Health were the jurisdiction of other, more powerful committees that seldom viewed the R&D programs of the respective agencies as part of a potentially comprehensive national package. Other agencies, such as the Departments of Commerce and State, which indirectly affected federal science policy, were under the jurisdiction of still other committees. Fragmentation of R&D oversight authority in the Senate was even worse; in 1981 and for several years following, he Senate failed even to consider an authorization bill for the National Science Foundation because of a jurisdictional dispute between the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

These jurisdictional problems worsened in the early 1980s, when organizational reforms intended to limit the power of House committee chairs led to a proliferation of subcommittees. By one count, there were five hundred such subcommittees in both houses by 1988—nearly one for each member of Congress. This absurd state of affairs considerably worsened the legislative tendency to view science policy in terms of traditional special-interest politics, giving rise to a practice that came to be known as “academic pork barreling.” Irwin Goodwin, “Universities Reach Into Pork Barrel With Help From Friends in Congress,” Physics Today (April 1989), 43-45. Some universities, frustrated in their attempts to obtain research funding through conventional agency channels, hired professional lobbyists to take their case directly to the floor of the House or Senate. The lobbyists would persuade a home-district legislator to move an amendment for the university’s desired facility to the appropriations bill for an R&D agency, thus bypassing both agency and congressional committee review. Condemnation of the practice by the National Science Board, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Association of Research Universities was derided as an attempt by the “haves” to deny the “have-nots” their fair share of federal funding.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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