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Keyworth’s claim that the Reagan administration and Congress were generous to science was echoed by the external community, as evidenced by a July 3, 1987, Science article entitled, “Science Budgets Fare Well in House Action.” “News and Comment,” Science 237 (July 3, 1987), 21. This trend for basic research persisted until politically unacceptable federal deficits forced the administration and Congress to reexamine their priorities, beginning with the president’s proposed fiscal year 1988 budget. Irwin Goodwin, “Physicists Dismayed by NSF’s Many Cuts in Congress’s Hard-Times 1988 Budget," Physics Today (March 1988), 41-44.

Support for the social sciences in Reagan’s first budge request, however, was drastically reduced, and NSF’s science education budget almost entirely eliminated. In response, the National Science Board, as NSF’s policy-making and governing body, invoked a rarely used provision of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 by convening a special commission to examine the broad science education issue. This commission lent support to subsequent congressional restoration of science education through creation of NSF’s Directorate for Education and Human Resources. All 435 members of the House of Representatives, after all, had schoolteachers in their districts, many of whom had profited from programs the Reagan administration was proposing to cut. Congress voted to restore funding for science education to NSF, and the administration had no choice but to comply. From then on, science education would be an integral component of U.S. science policy.

Engineering research centers

The relatively modest university-industry cooperative research programs initiated by NSF in 1978 proved to be so well received that in 1984, the agency initiated its Engineering Research Centers program, which provided substantial support to a small number of universities or university consortia to undertake large, long-term research programs in cooperation with industry. In 1986, NSF expanded the centers concept again, creating a parallel Science and Technology Centers program.

The academic community was initially unhappy with these programs, contending that NSF ought to confine its support to small groups of academic investigators for whom the costs of the new programs would seriously reduce available funding. But NSF Director Erich Bloch argued persuasively that science had changed drastically since Science—the Endless Frontier was released in 1945. Many contemporary science and engineering problems, he argued, could be addressed only by large, interdisciplinary groups with guaranteed long-term support. Further, it could no longer be assumed that industry would automatically pick up and develop the results of university basic research. Industry needed direct involvement with large, complex, university-based research programs that would, in turn, sensitize university researchers and students to industry’s needs. He also urged professional science and engineering societies to set their priorities for large-scale programs rather than having NSF and other science-related agencies set them by default. Irwin Goodwin, “Erich Bloch: on Changing Times and Angry Scientists at NSF,” Physics Today (August 1988), 47-52.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
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SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
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Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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