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Clearly, the ratio of Human Capital to Physical Capital increased greatly over the past several decades (when Human Capital is measured as the number of effective units of skilled labor). Human Capital formation has also had important effects on health in such nations as the U.S. (Cutler&Lleras-Muney). David M. Cutler&Adriana Lleras-Muney (2006, July), “Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence”, NBER Working Paper No. 12352.

Older findings (1999) indicated that age-adjusted mortality rate for high school dropouts age 25-64 was twice as large as those with some college.

Newer findings for the U.S., where human capital has been most studied, indicate that:

  • An additional year of education increased earnings by 10% or $80k in present value over the course of a lifetime.
  • The health implications of investment in human capital are notable.
  • One more year of education led to increased life expectancy by 0.18 years in the U.S. Further,
  • An additional four years of education lowers mortality by 1.8 percentage points; reduces heart disease by 2.16% points and reduces diabetes risk by 1.3% points. The interaction between Human Capital investment and health is therefore clear.

Later in this chapter, we turn to more explicit attention to investment in public health in emerging nations.

Varieties of forms of investments in human k – vocational education

There is richness in experience in Human K formation that is not often recognized. The contribution of Vocational education is an example. Here is an example of what can be done by resourceful people in poor countries for large payoffs for the poor. It is also one good example of effects of foreign aid.

Vietnam: hoa sua vocational training school

The author made annual visits to Vietnam each year over a ten year period from 2004-2014 first to help oversee selection of scholars for a program that places students in PhD programs in science and public health, then as a member of the Board of Trustees of a new University there, Tan Tao, near Ho Chi Minh City.

In 2007, in a restaurant in a hotel in Hanoi, he came across a large group of young men and women being led about by a mentor, explaining food service and hospitality in leading hotels.

These young people turned out to be students from Hoa Sua School— orphans and street children and hearing-impaired young adults ready to place their skills on the job market.

Hou Sua was founded in 1994 by six retired Vietnamese woman who set up a cooking school to transfer their skills. Within a few months they realized that orphaned and troubled youth in Hanoi had zero opportunity for school of any kind , not even vocational training. Scratching together funds, they opened a restaurant featuring Vietnamese and European cooking; a bakery, etc. Earnings from the restaurant financed the school.

Their fruitful work was noticed in 2000 by the French Government. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded new buildings for the school at a new site. Then the school was linked to the Versailles Chamber of Commerce in France, enabling them to offer coveted diplomas called “Certificat d’Aptitude Professionalle.”

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
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What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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