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However, the 21 st century is so far showing that certain kinds of technological change can lead to rapid improvements in income even while a nation tries to build up its base of Human Capital from low levels.

The internet and cell phones

By the year 2010 the rapid spread of mobile phones began to have very significant and unforeseen results for financial development, agricultural development, and efficiency in markets, and even in public health.

New research by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Robert Jensen, and Aparajita Goyal shows among other things the following. Source______ [M.G. Source]

The internet and mobile phones boost growth. The impact is, as one would expect, is greater in poor countries than in rich ones, because of the very poor pre-existing communications infrastructure in poor countries. (This reflects of course lack of investment in Physical Capital).

The growth promotion effects are greater for the internet than for mobile phones as we shall see. But mobile phones have mattered greatly.

Background

First consider all mobile phones. By the year 2000, poor nations had 175 million mobile phones (1/4 of the 700 million world total). By 2009 the number of mobile phones in poor nations reached three billion (3/4 of world total).

In poor nations, for every ten percentage points increase in mobile phone availability, GDP per capita rose by 0.8 percentage points (in rich nations it rose by 0.6). Source_______ [M.G. Source]

And, in poor nations having dial-up Internet access, every ten percentage point increase in adoption, was associated with an increase in GDP growth of 1.1 percentage points.

For broadband Internet, in poor nations every ten percentage points of increases in adoption, was associated with a 1.4 percentage point increase in GDP per capita.

Finally, there have begun to appear some potentially significant unforeseen feedback from spreading use of smartphones. There are now cell phone stethoscopes, cell phone microscopes (for imaging cells and parasites) remote diagnoses of disease etc. (WSJ, Sept. 21, 2013).

Promising new approaches in assessing human capital formation policies

We have seen that the idea of human capital formation first took shape in the mind of Nobel Laureate Theodore Schultz in the forties. By the turn of the century virtually all economists had recognized its importance. As the field expanded, so did new analytical and empirical tools developed to help us understand the implications.

One of the most promising of these new tools (new to economics, but not to medicine) has been randomized control trials (RCTs), first pioneered in economics by two MIT economists, Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo.

Since 2003, their lab has mounted nearly 450 RCTs, focusing on human capital as well as issues in finance and other fields. With the publication of their widely and highly regarded book, Poor Economics

Abhijit Banerjee&Esther Duflo (2011), Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty, New York: Public Affairs Press.

in 2011, economics, especially development economics, has been greatly enriched. The authors, and others who utilize RCTs, typically focus on problems affecting the very poor, most who live on less than $1 U.S. dollar per day.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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