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Education is political. In order to retain one’s job, a person is required to implement mandated policies and regulations that are consistent with the monocultural model. Within this context educators are unconsciously socialized into accepting uncritically this model. Educational justice leaders need to work against this socializing tendency within them before they can be effective change agents. Thus they need to maintain a level of credibility among stakeholders while simultaneously advocating for an alternative model.

Emergence of a knowledge era is bringing about societal and global upheavals. Increasing technologies, e-commerce, outsourcing of jobs, and a global economy driven by the knowledge industries are impacting people daily (Drucker, 2007). Increasing diversity necessitates culturally proficient leaders (Terrell&Lindsey, 2009). Elderly are beginning to outnumber youth, impacting fiscal allocations; jobs are shifting globally between countries; and social injustices are accumulating (Marx, 2008). These problems, combined with the monocultural model of schooling, require leaders who can transform education and society. Institutionalized marginalization continues in schools (Adams, Blumenfeld, Castañeda, Hackman, Peters,&Zúñiga, 2000; Heldke&O’Connor, 2004). Problems are exacerbated by a wealth gap (Giroux, 2009). Doubts exist about the capacity of current educational leaders to be paradigmatic change agents (Fullan, 2005). The current monocultural model reflects a static worldview entrenched in essentialism whereby the beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture are perpetuated (Fuchs, 2001). Problem-posing is an alternative model arising from social reconstructionism and reflects a dynamic, historical consciousness and systemic worldview (Freire, 2007). In this model the purpose of schooling is to address the needs of society as a whole, acknowledge diversity, develop critical literacy, prepare students to become societal change agents who solve social problems, and end oppression (Webb, Metha&Jodan, 2009). Problem-posing and social reconstructionism assert the democratic ideal that the freedom one affords to self should be afforded to others.

Theoretical framework

Mezirow’s (1981) theory of transformative learning was selected because of its genesis in critical theory. He reinterpreted Habermas’ (1972) concept of emancipation as a knowledge domain transforming one’s life-world (Brookfield, 2005). Mezirow redefined emancipation as perspective transformation.

This theory has prompted scholarship and broader understandings of adult learning. The phases of transformative theory serve as a heuristic guide for studying the meaning perspectives of doctoral students. Self-examination of one’s existing meaning perspectives is threatening as habituated ways of thinking are questioned (Mezirow, 1991).

The possibility exists that not all people in a doctoral program for educational justice leadership will embrace transformative learning. Instead, they may avoid self-examination and not critically analyze meaning perspectives using social justice tenets. Thus, their emancipation will be limited by unquestioned institutional beliefs and norms that shaped them. In contrast, embracing transformative learning entails a process of reevaluating one’s identity, institutions, and worldview.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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