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Discerning the degree in shifts of meaning perspectives is difficult (Taylor, 2007). The possibility exists that even the most obstructionist students may have engaged in some degree of transformative learning. The possibility also exists that their continued aggression and reactivity may have fostered transformative learning, expanded worldviews, and enhanced knowledge of social justice for the other participants.

Conclusions

The results of this study reveal alignment of Mezirow’s (2009) phases of adult learning with the transformative learning experiences of participants. Students experienced disequilibrium as they encountered social justice theories, examined the different forms of oppression that groups of students encounter in their schooling, and reflected on the institutions that shaped their own lives. Through self-examination they assessed their presuppositions and embraced new meaning perspectives. They were in the process of reintegrating their lives based on the new meaning perspectives. They may encounter other phases of the theory as they complete their dissertations and implement actions in leadership positions.

Transformative learning and educational justice leaders are consistent with the tenets of cultural proficiency. Culturally proficient leaders are people who seriously examine and transform their assumptions, behaviors, and beliefs about those who are different from them so they can act as change agents against injustice. Such work includes critically analyzing organizational practices and policies within societal institutions that are barriers to human freedom.

Transformative adult learning is central to educational justice leadership. It answers the following question posed in 1926: “How can people who wish to improve the world do so without being conscious of the need for improvement within themselves?” (Lindemann, 1989, p. 65). Freire’s (1970) model of problem-posing education is conducive to transformative learning. This study illustrates the need to understand transformative learning, the conditions that promote it, and the use of a problem-posing model of teaching.

References

Adams, M., W. Blumenfeld, R. Castañeda, H. Hackman, M. Peters,&X. Zúñiga, (Eds.) (2000). Readings for diversity and social justice. New York: Routledge.

Brookfield, S. (2005). The power of critical theory: Liberating adult learning and teaching . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cranton, P. (2006). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Cranton, P.&B. Wright (2008). ‘The transformative educator as learning companion.’ Journal of Transformative Education 6(1): 33-47.

Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry&research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Crowther, J., V. Galloway,&I. Martin (2005). Popular education: Engaging the academy: International perspectives. Leicester: NIACE.

Drucker, P. (2007). Managing in the next society. Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage. Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield.

Fuchs, S. (2001). Against essentialism: A theory of culture and society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Giroux, H. (2009). Youth in a suspect society: Democracy or disposability. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Habermas, J. (1972). Knowledge and human interests. Boston: Beacon Press.

Heldke, L.&P. O’Connor, (Eds.) (2004). Resistance: Theoretical perspectives on racism, sexism, and heterosexism. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lindeman, E. (1989). The meaning of adult education. Norman: University of Oklahoma.

Marx, G. (2008). Sixteen trends, Their profound impact on our future: Implications for students, education, communities, countries, and the whole of society . Arlington: Educational Research Service.

Mezirow, J. (1981). ‘A critical theory of adult learning and education.’ Adult Education Quarterly, 32 (1), 3-27.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J. (2009). ‘Transformative learning theory.’ In: J. Mezirow, E. Taylor,&Associates (eds.), Transformative learning in practice: Insights from community, workplace, and higher education, 18-31.

Schwandt, A. (2007). The SAGE dictionary of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Synder, C. (2008). ‘Grabbing hold of a moving target: Identifying and measuring the transformative learning process.’ Journal of Transformative Education 6(3): 159-181.

Terrell, R.&R. Lindsey (2009). Culturally proficient leadership: The personal journey begins within. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

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Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
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ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
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Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
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Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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Embra Reply
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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China
Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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