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Balancing and Targeting a Comprehensive ABC Approach

A USAID-funded review of data finds the need for appropriately balanced and targeted ABC approaches. This study hasanalyzed how ABC behaviors appear to have affected HIV prevalence in three countries where prevalence has declined (Uganda, Zambia, and Thailand)compared to three countries where there is little evidence of a decline (Cameroon, Kenya, and Zimbabwe). In the case of the five African countries,it found that significant delays in the onset of sexual activity, declines in premarital sex, and large declines in extramarital sex and multiplesexual partnerships occurred in Uganda and Zambia during the 1990s, while comparable changes appear not to have occurred in Cameroon, Kenya, orZimbabwe. Condom use increased greatly in all of the countries.

In September 2002, USAID hosted a meeting of technical experts from HIV/AIDS programs and research institutions to consider theevidence regarding ABC behavior change approaches to HIV prevention. The meeting identified areas of consensus that may have importantimplications for program planning and decision making:

There is a clear need for a balance of A, B, and C interventions. One approach should not be favored over another.Approaches should instead be combined as appropriate based on the local cultural context as well as the state of the HIV epidemic.

Interventions need to be targeted for efficiency and respond to crucial differences among target groups. For example, balancedABC approaches might be implemented in the form of A interventions promoting sexual deferral to youth;B interventions promoting partner reduction to those not in monogamous relationships; and C interventionspromoting condom use to highly sexually active groups, especially sex workers and their clients, and people living with HIV/AIDS.

The nature of the epidemic is a major factor in determining the appropriate balance. In Southeast Asia, HIV/AIDS is stilllargely confined to high-risk populations, in which correct and consistent condom use is relatively easy to implement. In many Africancountries, the epidemic is more generalized and thus requires an appropriate mix of A, B, and C approaches.

Continuing studies are needed. Continuing studies in other countries will yield more evidence of the most effective balance ofABC approaches in different settings. Senegal, for example, has achieved Uganda-like behavior change with a balanced ABC program in alow-prevalence setting. Further study of such successes is needed to consider their potential application elsewhere.

The a-b-c approach: abstinence

Abstinence means avoiding sex. Sex can have different definitions for different people. Some people define sex aspenis-in-vagina intercourse. Others may include oral sex, anal sex, or even kissing and touching. The way you define "sex" determines whatactivities to avoid if you want to abstain. For the purpose of this page, we will focus on abstaining from penis-in-vagina intercourse because thegoal of these materials is to help you prevent pregnancy.

Please remember that it's OK to go through periods of your life, or periods of time within a single relationship, in which you wantto abstain and periods in which you want to have sex. The decision to have sex is YOUR decision, each and every time.

Advantages:

  • Abstinence is free and available to everyone.
  • It's extremely effective at preventing both pregnancy and infection.
  • It can be started at any time in your life.
  • Abstinence may encourage people to build relationships in other ways.
  • It may be the course of action which you feel is right for you and makes you feel good about yourself.

The a-b-c approach - be faithful

To "B-e Faithful" as a means of AIDS prevention means to remain loyal to one's sexual partner. By doing such, one lowers the risk ofexposure to HIV-infected individuals. By choosing to remain in a faithful, committed relationship each partner is choosing to be exclusive and onlyhave sexual intercourse with one another. Thus, if you choose to be sexually active, rather than to abstain from sex, being faithful to your sexulpartner is the next step in the ABC prevention plan as a way to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV.

The a-b-c approach: condoms

Studies have shown that latex condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission when used consistently andcorrectly. These studies looked at uninfected people considered to be at very high risk of infection because they were involved in sexualrelationships with HIV-infected people. The studies found that even with repeated sexual contact, 98-100 percent of those people who used latexcondoms correctly and consistently did not become infected.

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Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
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Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
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ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
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linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
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Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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