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It is now clear that Uganda's decline in HIV prevalence followed positive changes in all three ABC behaviors: increasedabstinence, including deferral or greatly reduced levels of sexual activity by youth since the late 1980s; increased faithfulness and partnerreduction behaviors; and increased condom use by casual partners. In Uganda's particular circumstances, the most significant of these appearto be faithfulness or partner reduction behaviors by Ugandan men and women, whose reported casual sex encounters declined by well over 50 percentbetween 1989 and 1995. This conclusion is supported by comparisons with other African countries.

In addition, abstinence, deferral of sexual activity by youth, and condom use played substantial roles in reducing HIVprevalence. Uganda's successful combination of ABC approaches appears rooted in a community-based national response in which both thegovernmental and nongovernmental sectors, including faith-based organizations, succeeded at reaching different population groups withdifferent messages and interventions appropriate to their need and ability to respond. Young persons who had not yet begun to have sex werecautioned to wait. If a young person had just begun to have sex, then he or she should return to abstinence. If a person was already sexually active, he orshe should adopt the practice referred to locally as "zero grazing" - faithfulness in marriage or partner reduction outside of marriage. Forthose who could not heed this advice, free and affordable condoms were distributed and promoted.

Evidence From Other Countries

While Uganda provides the most dramatic example of the effect of ABC behavior changes on slowing the spread of HIV infection, thereis growing evidence from other countries as well. In Thailand, the first Asian country to face a severe AIDS epidemic, commercial sex was the mainsource of HIV infection. In the early 1990s, the government successfully instituted a "100 percent condom use" policy in commercial sexestablishments, and this policy was widely credited with drastically reducing the spread of HIV infection. In addition to increased condom use,between 1990 and 1995 the proportion of men reporting paying for sex also declined by more than 50 percent. In addition to condom use, partnerreduction in Thailand undoubtedly had a substantial effect on slowing the country's HIV/AIDS epidemic. As in Uganda, the government's willingnessto address the epidemic openly was crucial.

Zambia, Cambodia, and the Dominican Republic are other countries in which various combinations of ABC behaviors havecontributed to declines in HIV prevalence. In Zambia, some decline in prevalence appears to have occurred among urban youth during the 1990s,during which time national surveys reported clear, positive changes in all three ABC behaviors. The grassroots involvement of faith-based and othercommunity-based organizations was crucial in promoting these changes. As occurred in Uganda, the main reported change was a large decline in casualsex among both men and women. Cambodia is replicating Thailand's success in applying a 100 percent condom policy in commercial sex establishments.Also similar to Thailand, the country has experienced a steep decline in the number of men visiting sex workers (from 27 to 11 percent between 1996 and2000). In the Dominican Republic, partner reduction by men and increased condom use with non-regular sexual partners also appear to have slowed thespread of infection.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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