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Lab 4: metathesis: to exchange or not


  • To give practice writing equations for metathesis reactions, including net ionic equations
  • To illustrate the concept of solubility and the effect of temperature and crystallization


You will be determined according to the following:

  • Pre-lab (10%)
    • Must attach graph
  • Lab Report Form (80%)
    • Must include detailed observations for each reaction
  • TA Evaluation of lab procedure (10%)

Before coming to lab…

  • Complete the pre-lab exercise, including the plot (due at the beginning of lab)
  • Read the instructions for the lab and refresh your memory on anything that isn’t clear by reading your textbook


In molecular equations for many aqueous reactions, cations and anions appear to exchange partners. These reactions conform to the following general equation:

Equation 1: AX + BY AY + BX size 12{"AX"+"BY" rightarrow "AY"+"BX"} {}

These reactions are known as metathesis reactions. For a metathesis reaction to lead to a net change in solution, ions must be removed from the solution. In general, three chemical processes can lead to the removal of ions from solution, comcomitantly serving as a driving force for metathesis to occur:

1. The formation of a precipitate2. The formation of a weak electrolyte or nonelectrolyte3. The formation of a gas that escapes from solution

The reaction of barium chloride with silver nitrate is a typical example:

Equation 2: BaCl 2 ( aq ) + 2AgNO 3 ( aq ) Ba ( NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2AgCl ( s ) size 12{"BaCl" rSub { size 8{2} } \( "aq" \) +"2AgNO" rSub { size 8{3} } \( "aq" \) rightarrow "Ba" \( "NO" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{2} } \( "aq" \) +"2AgCl" \( s \) } {}

This form of the equation for this reaction is referred to as the molecular equations. Since we know that the salts BaCl 2 size 12{"BaCl" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , AgNO 3 size 12{"AgNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , and Ba ( NO 3 ) 2 size 12{"Ba" \( "NO" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{2} } } {} are strong electrolytes and are completely dissociated in solution, we can more realistically write the equation as follows:

Equation 3: Ba 2 + ( aq ) + 2Cl ( aq ) + 2Ag + ( aq ) + 2NO 3 ( aq ) Ba 2 + ( aq ) + 2NO 3 ( aq ) + 2AgCl ( s ) size 12{"Ba" rSup { size 8{2+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"2Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } \( "aq" \) +"2Ag" rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"2NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{-{}} } } \( "aq" \) rightarrow "Ba" rSup { size 8{2+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"2NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{-{}} } } \( "aq" \) +"2AgCl" \( s \) } {}

This form, in which all ions are shown, is known as the complete ionic equation. Reaction occurs because the insoluble substance AgCl precipitates out of solution. The other product, barium nitrate, is soluble in water and remains in solution. We see that Ba 2 + size 12{"Ba" rSup { size 8{2+{}} } } {} and NO 3 size 12{"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } } {} ions appear on both sides of the equation and thus do not enter into the reaction. Such ions are called spectator ions. If we eliminate or omit them from both sides, we obtain the net ionic equation:

Equation 4: Ag + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) size 12{"Ag" rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } \( "aq" \) rightarrow "AgCl" \( s \) } {}

This equation focuses our attention on the salient feature of the reaction: the formation of the precipitate AgCl. It tells us that solutions of any soluble Ag + salt size 12{"Ag" rSup { size 8{+{}} } "salt"} {} and any soluble Cl salt size 12{"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } "salt"} {} , when mixed, will form insoluble AgCl. When writing net ionic equations, remember that only strong electrolytes are written in the ionic form. Solids, gases, nonelectrolytes, and weak electrolytes are written in the molecular form. Frequently the symbol (aq) is omitted from ionic equations. The symbols (g) for gas and (s) for solid should not be omitted. Thus, Equation 4 can be written as

Equation 5: Ag + + Cl AgCl ( s ) size 12{"Ag" rSup { size 8{+{}} } +"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } rightarrow "AgCl" \( s \) } {}

Consider mixing solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} . The ionic equation for the reaction is

Equation 6: K + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) + Na + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq ) K + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq ) + Na + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) size 12{K rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } \( "aq" \) +"Na" rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{-{}} } } \( "aq" \) rightarrow K rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{-{}} } } \( "aq" \) +"Na" rSup { size 8{+{}} } \( "aq" \) +"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } \( "aq" \) } {}

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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