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In the second part of this experiment, you will study the effect of temperature on solubility. The effect that temperature has on solubility varies from salt to salt. We conclude that mixing solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} resulted in no reaction (see Equations 6 and 7). What would happen if we cooled such a mixture? The solution would eventually become saturated with respect to one of the salts, and crystals of that salt would begin to appear as its solubility was exceeded. Examination of Equation 6 reveals that crystals of any of the following salts could appear initially: KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , or NaCl.Consequently, if a solution containing Na + size 12{"Na" rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , K + size 12{K rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , Cl size 12{"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} , and NO 3 size 12{"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } } {} ions is evaporated at a given temperature, the solution becomes more and more concentrated and will eventually become saturated with respect to one of the four compounds. If a evaporation is continued, that compound will crystallize out, removing its' ions from solution. The other ions will remain in solution and increase in concentration. Before beginning this laboratory exercise you are to plot a graph of the solubilities of the four salts given in Table 3 on your report sheet.

Experimental procedure

Part 1: metathesis reactions


  • The report sheet lists 16 pairs of chemicals that are to be mixed. Use about 1 mL of the reagents to be combined as indicated on the report sheet.
  • Mix the solutions in small test tubes and record your observations on the report sheet. If there is no reaction, write N.R. (The reactions need not be carried out in the order listed. In order to reduce congestion at the reagent shelf, half the class will start in reverse order). Dispose of the contents of your test tubes in the designated receptacles.

Part 2: solubility, temperature and crystallization

  • Place 8.5 g of sodium nitrate and 7.5 g of potassium chloride in a 100-mL beaker and add 25 mL of water. Warm the mixture on an hotplate, stirring, until the solids completely dissolve.
  • Assuming a volume of 25mL for the solution, calculate the molarity of the solution with respect to NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaCl, and KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , and record these molarities on your report form.
  • Cool the solution to about 10°C by placing the beaker in ice water in a 600-mL beaker and stir the solution carefully with a thermometer, being careful not to break it.
  • When no more crystals form, at approximately 10°C, filter the cold solution quickly and allow the filtrate to drain thoroughly into an evaporating dish. Dry the crystals between two dry pieces of filter paper or paper towels.
  • Examine the crystals with a magnifying glass (or fill a Florence flask with water and look at the crystals through it). Describe the shape of the crystals—that is, needles, cubes, plates, rhombs, and so forth on your report form.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, which compound crystallized out of solution and write that in the appropriate place on your report form
  • Evaporate the filtrate to about half of its volume using a Bunsen burner and ring stand. A second crop of crystals should form. Record the temperature and rapidly filter the hot solution, collecting the filtrate in a clean 100-mL beaker.
  • Dry the second batch of crystals between two pieces of filter paper and examine their shape. Compare their shape with the first batch of crystals.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, what is this substance?
  • Finally, cool the filtrate to 10°C while stirring carefully with a thermometer to obtain a third crop of crystals. Carefully observe their shapes and compare them with those of the first and second batches.
  • What compound is the third batch of crystals? Dispose of the chemicals in the designated receptacles.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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