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Malcom III Canmore's second wife, Margaret, was a descendant of King Alfred and a grand niece of Edward the Confessor and with her to Scotland came Edgar Atheling, heir to the English throne. The marriage, however, did not prevent Edward from burning Northumbria and it didn't keep William the Conqueror from continuing a terrible slaughter in that province in his turn. Malcolm retaliated with a vicious raid of Cumbria, taking thousands of English to serve as Scottish slaves. In spite of these invasions and counter-invasions, Normanization of Scotland was soon under way, initiated by the gentle guidance of Margaret and the Norman-English who eventually filled her court. Upon Malcolm III's death in 1093, probably by treachery, his brother Donald Bane and his sons, Duncan II and Edgar, finished out the century on the throne. Donald Bane was the last Celtic king of Scotland, because Duncan II and Edgar, only one-half Scot by parentage, were truly Anglo-Saxon in thought and character. (Ref. 119 , 170 )


Brian Boru (or Boruma) of Munster was an early century leader who promoted the development of roads and forts. In 1014 he defeated the Vikings at Clontarf, although he was killed in the battle. Thereafter some Norse remained in the cities but they no longer dominated the country and soon most withdrew to various Scottish islands, letting Ireland revert to a Celtic culture. Dublin did remain the chief market of the Scandinavians in the west. After Clontarf there followed a short period of revival of art and literature before another era of civil wars started. The next attempt at union was by Diarmat, who became king of Leinster in the 1040s. (Ref. 8 )


In 1039 the Welsh prince, Gruffydd of Gwynedd and Powys, defeatedan encroaching English force and Wales was left alone for nearly 25 years. In 1063, however,

Harold, then heir to the English throne, with the help of his brother Tostig of Northumbria, conquered Wales again by defeating Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. (Ref. 222 )


After conversion to Christianity the restless energy of the Vikings quickly evaporated, although as marine merchants they did expand the Frisian-North Sea traffic in fish, wine, beer, salt and metals and carried these products on into the Atlantic. (Ref. 8 , 139 ) Additional Notes


After the death of Olaf I Trygvesson in A.D. 1000 there was a period of feudal disruption in Norway until Olaf II took control in 1016. This Olaf II, also called Olaf the Big, like his predecessors, tried to convert his subjects to Christianity by savage and bloody means and he was killed in 1028 while fighting against his own rebellious subjects. At about this same time, young King Canute, as monarch of both England and Denmark, also laid claim to the Norwegian throne and was probably encouraged by those Norwegians who were antagonistic to Olaf. The local, on the spot rulers of Norway in the years immediately after Olaf II's death, however, were so inept that the people began to think much more kindly of their dead king and, recalling that at the moment of his death there was an eclipse of the sun, they began to feel that Olaf's God was angry. With the help of English and German missionaries they then became Christians and in the next century even canonized Olaf. In 1035, under Magnus the Good, the Norwegians finally eliminated all Danish claims to their throne, achieving complete independence. Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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