4.7 Exponential and logarithmic models  (Page 8/16)

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Verbal

With what kind of exponential model would half-life be associated? What role does half-life play in these models?

Half-life is a measure of decay and is thus associated with exponential decay models. The half-life of a substance or quantity is the amount of time it takes for half of the initial amount of that substance or quantity to decay.

What is carbon dating? Why does it work? Give an example in which carbon dating would be useful.

With what kind of exponential model would doubling time be associated? What role does doubling time play in these models?

Doubling time is a measure of growth and is thus associated with exponential growth models. The doubling time of a substance or quantity is the amount of time it takes for the initial amount of that substance or quantity to double in size.

Define Newton’s Law of Cooling. Then name at least three real-world situations where Newton’s Law of Cooling would be applied.

What is an order of magnitude? Why are orders of magnitude useful? Give an example to explain.

An order of magnitude is the nearest power of ten by which a quantity exponentially grows. It is also an approximate position on a logarithmic scale; Sample response: Orders of magnitude are useful when making comparisons between numbers that differ by a great amount. For example, the mass of Saturn is 95 times greater than the mass of Earth. This is the same as saying that the mass of Saturn is about $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{\text{2}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ times, or 2 orders of magnitude greater, than the mass of Earth.

Numeric

The temperature of an object in degrees Fahrenheit after t minutes is represented by the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(t\right)=68{e}^{-0.0174t}+72.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To the nearest degree, what is the temperature of the object after one and a half hours?

For the following exercises, use the logistic growth model $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{150}{1+8{e}^{-2x}}.$

Find and interpret $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(0\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Round to the nearest tenth.

$f\left(0\right)\approx 16.7;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The amount initially present is about 16.7 units.

Find and interpret $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(4\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Round to the nearest tenth.

Find the carrying capacity.

150

Graph the model.

Determine whether the data from the table could best be represented as a function that is linear, exponential, or logarithmic. Then write a formula for a model that represents the data.

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ –2 0.694 –1 0.833 0 1 1 1.2 2 1.44 3 1.728 4 2.074 5 2.488

exponential; $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={1.2}^{x}$

Rewrite $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=1.68{\left(0.65\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as an exponential equation with base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to five significant digits.

Technology

For the following exercises, enter the data from each table into a graphing calculator and graph the resulting scatter plots. Determine whether the data from the table could represent a function that is linear, exponential, or logarithmic.

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1 2 2 4.079 3 5.296 4 6.159 5 6.828 6 7.375 7 7.838 8 8.238 9 8.592 10 8.908

logarithmic

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1 2.4 2 2.88 3 3.456 4 4.147 5 4.977 6 5.972 7 7.166 8 8.6 9 10.32 10 12.383
 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 4 9.429 5 9.972 6 10.415 7 10.79 8 11.115 9 11.401 10 11.657 11 11.889 12 12.101 13 12.295

logarithmic

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1.25 5.75 2.25 8.75 3.56 12.68 4.2 14.6 5.65 18.95 6.75 22.25 7.25 23.75 8.6 27.8 9.25 29.75 10.5 33.5

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator and this scenario: the population of a fish farm in $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ years is modeled by the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P\left(t\right)=\frac{1000}{1+9{e}^{-0.6t}}.$

A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and$2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and$0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations
i want to sure my answer of the exercise
what is the diameter of(x-2)²+(y-3)²=25
how to solve the Identity ?
what type of identity
Jeffrey
Confunction Identity
Barcenas
how to solve the sums
meena
hello guys
meena
For each year t, the population of a forest of trees is represented by the function A(t) = 117(1.029)t. In a neighboring forest, the population of the same type of tree is represented by the function B(t) = 86(1.025)t.
by how many trees did forest "A" have a greater number?
Shakeena
32.243
Kenard
how solve standard form of polar
what is a complex number used for?
It's just like any other number. The important thing to know is that they exist and can be used in computations like any number.
Steve
I would like to add that they are used in AC signal analysis for one thing
Scott
Good call Scott. Also radar signals I believe.
Steve
They are used in any profession where the phase of a waveform has to be accounted for in the calculations. Imagine two electrical signals in a wire that are out of phase by 90°. At some times they will interfere constructively, others destructively. Complex numbers simplify those equations
Tim
Is there any rule we can use to get the nth term ?