# 4.6 Exponential and logarithmic equations

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In this section, you will:
• Use like bases to solve exponential equations.
• Use logarithms to solve exponential equations.
• Use the definition of a logarithm to solve logarithmic equations.
• Use the one-to-one property of logarithms to solve logarithmic equations.
• Solve applied problems involving exponential and logarithmic equations.

In 1859, an Australian landowner named Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits into the wild for hunting. Because Australia had few predators and ample food, the rabbit population exploded. In fewer than ten years, the rabbit population numbered in the millions.

Uncontrolled population growth, as in the wild rabbits in Australia, can be modeled with exponential functions. Equations resulting from those exponential functions can be solved to analyze and make predictions about exponential growth. In this section, we will learn techniques for solving exponential functions.

## Using like bases to solve exponential equations

The first technique involves two functions with like bases. Recall that the one-to-one property of exponential functions tells us that, for any real numbers $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b,$ $S,$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T,$ where ${b}^{S}={b}^{T}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ if and only if $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S=T.$

In other words, when an exponential equation has the same base on each side, the exponents must be equal. This also applies when the exponents are algebraic expressions. Therefore, we can solve many exponential equations by using the rules of exponents to rewrite each side as a power with the same base. Then, we use the fact that exponential functions are one-to-one to set the exponents equal to one another, and solve for the unknown.

For example, consider the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{3}^{4x-7}=\frac{{3}^{2x}}{3}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x,$ we use the division property of exponents to rewrite the right side so that both sides have the common base, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Then we apply the one-to-one property of exponents by setting the exponents equal to one another and solving for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x:$

## Using the one-to-one property of exponential functions to solve exponential equations

For any algebraic expressions and any positive real number $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\ne 1,$

Given an exponential equation with the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{S}={b}^{T},$ where $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ are algebraic expressions with an unknown, solve for the unknown.

1. Use the rules of exponents to simplify, if necessary, so that the resulting equation has the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{S}={b}^{T}.$
2. Use the one-to-one property to set the exponents equal.
3. Solve the resulting equation, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S=T,$ for the unknown.

## Solving an exponential equation with a common base

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{2}^{x-1}={2}^{2x-4}.$

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{5}^{2x}={5}^{3x+2}.$

$x=-2$

The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and$2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and$0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations