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Section summaries

Section summaries distill the information in each section for both students and instructors down to key, concise points addressed in the section.

Key terms

Key terms are bold and are followed by a definition in context. Definitions of key terms are also listed in the Glossary, which appears at the end of the module online and at the end of the chapter in print.

Section quizzes

Section quizzes provide opportunities to apply and test the information students learn throughout each section. Both multiple-choice and short-response questions feature a variety of question types and range of difficulty.

Further research

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Acknowledgements

Introduction to Sociology is based on the work of numerous professors, writers, editors, and reviewers who are able to bring topics to students in the most engaging way.

We would like to thank all those listed below as well as many others who have contributed their time and energy to review and provide feedback on the manuscript. Especially Clint Lalonde and team at BC Campus for sharing the updates they made for use in this edition, and the team at Stark State College for their editorial support in this update. Their input has been critical in maintaining the pedagogical integrity and accuracy of the text.

Contributing authors

Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University*
Nathan Keirns, Zane State College*
Eric Strayer, Hartnell College*
Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Georgia Perimeter College
Gail Scaramuzzo, Lackawanna College
Tommy Sadler, Union University
Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College*
Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead*
Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College

*individuals who were contributors to the 2 nd edition

Expert reviewers

Rick Biesanz, Corning Community College
Cynthia Heddlesten, Metropolitan Community College
Janet Hund, Long Beach City College
Thea Alvarado, College of the Canyons
Daysha Lawrence, Stark State College
Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College
Natashia Willmott, Stark State College
Angela M. Adkins, Stark State College
Carol Jenkins, Glendale Community College
Lillian Marie Wallace, Pima Community College
J. Brandon Wallace, Middle Tennessee State University
Gerry R. Cox, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
David Hunt, Augusta State University
Jennifer L. Newman-Shoemake, Angelo State University, and Cisco College
Matthew Morrison, University of Virginia
Sue Greer-Pitt, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College
Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College
Athena Smith, Hillsborough Community College
Kim Winford, Blinn College
Kevin Keating, Broward College
Russell Davis, University of West Alabama
Kimberly Boyd, Piedmont Virginia Community College
Lynn Newhart, Rockford College
Russell C. Ward, Maysville Community and Technical College
Xuemei Hu, Union County College
Margaret A. Choka, Pellissippi State Community College
Cindy Minton, Clark State Community College
Nili Kirschner, Woodland Community College
Shonda Whetstone, Blinn College
Elizabeth Arreaga, instructor emerita at Long Beach City College
Florencio R. Riguera, Catholic University of America
John B. Gannon, College of Southern Nevada
Gerald Titchener, Des Moines Area Community College
Rahime-Malik Howard, El Centro College, and Collin College
Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead
Cynthia Tooley, Metropolitan Community College at Blue River
Carol Sebilia, Diablo Valley College
Marian Moore, Owens Community College
John Bartkowski, University of Texas at San Antonio
Shelly Dutchin, Western Technical College

Supplements

Accompanying the main text is an Instructor’s PowerPoint file, which includes all of the images and captions found throughout the text and an Instructor’s test bank.

Disclaimer

All photos and images were licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license at the time they were placed into this book. The CC-BY license does not cover any trademarks or logos in the photos. If you have questions about regarding photos or images, please contact us at info@openstaxcollege.org.

Questions & Answers

what are the approaches in sociology of education
kevolution Reply
what is social medicine plz explain this with examples..
SWS
what sociology theory
Evalife Reply
sociology means what?
sm Reply
means the science that use the empirical method and critical analysis to develop about human social stucture and activities
Musa
social scirnce is based on observable entites
Ilayda
the scientific study of human behaviors and society
asim
what is archiology
Benson
understanding human behaviour practicallly . sociology is ghe scientific nd emperical study of society e.g if we want to study of any individual wo can observe him r her through participatte obervation r nonobservation .wo can study individual's behaviour thriugh interview,questionere etc
musharaf
society makes people humans.Discuss
Sarudzayi
u can take help from google to search there 'research methodology'
musharaf
r u kidddding i dont think soooo
musharaf
jeushgaus ioahwjbsia sjdjsidb hdjskdbs isksks
Tohid Reply
thank uh sir
musharaf
You are always welcome dude
Mubarak
🤗🤗
musharaf
plz. can any one explain me if I completed sociology which department I.will work for the government ?
Hasan
sociology is not all about to work for govt itz social work ...help the society to solve the problm
musharaf
i also in sociology dept
Munir
well my question is how can I get job if my country not like western countries and. I. finished this field
Hasan
plz unswer my question
Hasan
Are you studying just to get Job?
Mubarak
No I don't think so. But a the and all of us have to earn money to pay your living place etc.
Jannik
Exactly, but you have to understand one thing knowledge is power and whenever you have power you have money. Think as a Social Thinker
Mubarak
mubark sr r uh agreee with facult's ideology😁😁😁😁
musharaf
knowlge z piwer
musharaf
yep knowledge is power but when u r studing you first target is to get knowledge than when you finished u have to look job than support society in need and make problem solver
Hasan
Thx Hasan Muuse and Mubarak Saidu. Do you study sociology? And in which country?
Jannik
jannik no
Hasan
But you are interested in this topic :D
Jannik
yes I like it
Hasan
yes I like to study
Hasan
Nice :D
Jannik
ok thnks
Hasan
I love to study to very interesting facts im learning
Kayleigh
what is conflict
Shahzaib
mubark sr here shows that this email z not valid
musharaf
what is class struggle theory?
shahnam Reply
class struggle is all about the conflict between two sections of society, one is having the hold on resources plus all the capital outcomes of it(called bourgeois) whereas the other section is bound and compelled to serve the industries as a labourers or workers(called proletariats).
Lokesh
its a theory given by karl marx about bourgeois nd proletraits or have's nd havenot's respectively
musharaf
thanks
shahnam
sure ! welcome.
Lokesh
hii
Lalita
hi
shahnam
hlo
Zahid
Class struggle is all about Materialism in human society. The scarcity of it let people struggle. The have and the have not, as Marx said the bourgeois and Proletariat
Mubarak
What is cultural Shock, and cultural relativism
Mubarak
ok
eddie
mubark sir plz tell me about cultural shock
musharaf
Cultural shock is conditions of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitude.
Mubarak
thank uh sir
musharaf
An example of cultural shock is, here in Nigeria there is a different cultures between southerners and northerners. So when a northerners visit South and saw southerner urinate while standing he feel abruptly and shock, because he is not familiar with this.
Mubarak
okh tysm
musharaf
Musharaf can you please tell me ur area of interest in sociology?
Mubarak
anyone have idea about contribution of classical theory of (karl marx,durkhiem,weber)on environmental sociology?
jumpe
im the girl im n intrested in gender ....feminism....i love redical feminist
musharaf
im also intrested in rural socoilogy
musharaf
because there r many problms in day to day life about about rural society nd gender
musharaf
Wao! Very well. I'm Industrial Sociologist
Mubarak
gooood
musharaf
I'm also a Functionalist and symbolic interaction
Mubarak
nyc
musharaf
wt about ur studies
musharaf
Because you knw Nigeria is a developing country so it's lack social analysts regarding to industrial planners. So that's why
Mubarak
I'm nw undergo my Masters degree in industrial sociology @University of Nigerian
Mubarak
nice thanks
manisha
what is meant by pattern variable
Akak
Your studies?
Mubarak
I don't study. I'm in Highschool in Germany :D
Jannik
Wao! Very Interesting
Mubarak
hello
Tohid
akak lego are u galo?
jumpe
sir i wish all ur dreams come true
musharaf
Hi Tohid
Mubarak
What have come today for
Mubarak
im doing master's degree in sociology from Jammu university
musharaf
Thank you so much Musharaf for ur prayer
Mubarak
Adi
Akak
👍
Tohid
Manisha u can
Akak
Is doing master in sociology a good opportunity to find later a good job where you like to go?
Jannik
akak sir pattern variable are 5 dichotomies dev. by tallcott parson to draw out the contrasting value to which individuals orient themselves in social interaction
musharaf
Pattern variable is a concept develop by Talcott person is trying to explain how social action
Mubarak
Good day guys
Mubarak
What is the main difference between census and survey?
Mustafa Reply
explain major contributions of Charles Wright Mills and Augusto Comte to the discipline of sociology
lugumba Reply
importance of sociology in logic if some one knows about plz help
Saqib
what are importance of studying sociology
Neema Reply
1 sociology detects and Solve Social Problems 2Sociology Helps in Planning and Development 3. Sociology makes a scientific study of Sociology 4 studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals. 5 Helps in Preservation and Growth of Culture
manisha
6.sociology has made broaden the outlook of man. 7 Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 
manisha
what are feature of social institution
Muhid
eplayn philosopher of sociology
Mujahid Reply
explain philosopher of sociology
Mujahid
me
Ashebir
what is the difference between asocialist group on all definitions?
Koko Reply
what is the value of sociology
Banao Reply
What are the patterns of social interaction with regard to gender, religion and education
Norman Reply
define functionalist perspective
Jalil
what is cultural
nusrat Reply
culture is the way of life of a particular group of people
Philemon
culture is the backbone of society.
shahnam
culture consists of the beliefs' behaviour' objects' and other characteristics common to the members of particular group of society.
Zahid
culture is our way of life, customs ,traditions ,norms nd behavoiur
musharaf
can anyone explain what is socialogy as science in detail ?
Sydish Reply
sociology is a science because it adoptes and applies the scientific method . sociology does make a scientific method in the study of its subject matter.hence sociology is a science
Zahid
because its study the systematically about society
Akak
in secince we use tools such as thermometers telescopes microscope verniercliper etc similarly in sociology we tools interview questionare servey case study sampling etc so sociology is a science.
shahnam
scientific study of society is called sociology it involves scientific method, observation, hypothesis, experiments, and conclusions , this study produces theories and facts about society , that's why it is science
sohrab
explayn philosopher of socilogy
Mujahid
is caste system dangerous in politics? how
Zahid Reply
In present days the main caused for winning the election,after that they influence in any field
Akak
by those activities a father will become enemy to his son hence we should control it
Zahid

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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