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The substantia nigra    (Latin for “black substance”) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)    are also located in the midbrain ( [link] ). Both regions contain cell bodies that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, and both are critical for movement. Degeneration of the substantia nigra and VTA is involved in Parkinson’s disease. In addition, these structures are involved in mood, reward, and addiction (Berridge&Robinson, 1998; Gardner, 2011; George, Le Moal,&Koob, 2012).

An illustration shows the location of the substantia negra and VTA in the brain.
The substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are located in the midbrain.

The hindbrain    is located at the back of the head and looks like an extension of the spinal cord. It contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum ( [link] ). The medulla    controls the automatic processes of the autonomic nervous system, such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate. The word pons literally means “bridge,” and as the name suggests, the pons    serves to connect the brain and spinal cord. It also is involved in regulating brain activity during sleep. The medulla, pons, and midbrain together are known as the brainstem.

An illustration shows the location of the pons, medulla, and cerebellum.
The pons, medulla, and cerebellum make up the hindbrain.

The cerebellum    (Latin for “little brain”) receives messages from muscles, tendons, joints, and structures in our ear to control balance, coordination, movement, and motor skills. The cerebellum is also thought to be an important area for processing some types of memories. In particular, procedural memory, or memory involved in learning and remembering how to perform tasks, is thought to be associated with the cerebellum. Recall that H. M. was unable to form new explicit memories, but he could learn new tasks. This is likely due to the fact that H. M.’s cerebellum remained intact.

Brain dead and on life support

What would you do if your spouse or loved one was declared brain dead but his or her body was being kept alive by medical equipment? Whose decision should it be to remove a feeding tube? Should medical care costs be a factor?

On February 25, 1990, a Florida woman named Terri Schiavo went into cardiac arrest, apparently triggered by a bulimic episode. She was eventually revived, but her brain had been deprived of oxygen for a long time. Brain scans indicated that there was no activity in her cerebral cortex, and she suffered from severe and permanent cerebral atrophy. Basically, Schiavo was in a vegetative state. Medical professionals determined that she would never again be able to move, talk, or respond in any way. To remain alive, she required a feeding tube, and there was no chance that her situation would ever improve.

On occasion, Schiavo’s eyes would move, and sometimes she would groan. Despite the doctors’ insistence to the contrary, her parents believed that these were signs that she was trying to communicate with them.

After 12 years, Schiavo’s husband argued that his wife would not have wanted to be kept alive with no feelings, sensations, or brain activity. Her parents, however, were very much against removing her feeding tube. Eventually, the case made its way to the courts, both in the state of Florida and at the federal level. By 2005, the courts found in favor of Schiavo’s husband, and the feeding tube was removed on March 18, 2005. Schiavo died 13 days later.

Why did Schiavo’s eyes sometimes move, and why did she groan? Although the parts of her brain that control thought, voluntary movement, and feeling were completely damaged, her brainstem was still intact. Her medulla and pons maintained her breathing and caused involuntary movements of her eyes and the occasional groans. Over the 15-year period that she was on a feeding tube, Schiavo’s medical costs may have topped $7 million (Arnst, 2003).

These questions were brought to popular conscience 25 years ago in the case of Terri Schiavo, and they persist today. In 2013, a 13-year-old girl who suffered complications after tonsil surgery was declared brain dead. There was a battle between her family, who wanted her to remain on life support, and the hospital’s policies regarding persons declared brain dead. In another complicated 2013–14 case in Texas, a pregnant EMT professional declared brain dead was kept alive for weeks, despite her spouse’s directives, which were based on her wishes should this situation arise. In this case, state laws designed to protect an unborn fetus came into consideration until doctors determined the fetus unviable.

Decisions surrounding the medical response to patients declared brain dead are complex. What do you think about these issues?

Questions & Answers

I often saw cat in my dreams nd thats why i m afraid of cats.. wherever i see cat i just escape from that place what is this nd why this happens
Tasneem Reply
usually whatever you see during the day or what impacted you in the slightest, will appear in your dream.
The
What kind of dream? Why you afraid of cat because you dream about it? Bad dream?
Yoselin
i saw cat nd lizard nd oftenly they attack me nd i could not save my self nd then i wakeup nd feels fear
Tasneem
from childhood i like cata nd play with it but now because of that dreams i dont like cats nd lizards
Tasneem
some times you feels uncomfortable to cat have around you ,but still you should take out from fear..
Kanzul
yes i want to take out this fear but i cannot face cat wherever i see cat i feel fear
Tasneem
you know your weakness, that is it..you should see the videos on cats ..it will be enough for you.. after that you see the variation in your mind illusions
Kanzul
if it is more fear, you take Consultancy from psychiatrist..
Kanzul
thats the problem i can't see cats videos i dont wanna see cats or lizards
Tasneem
what you think? that cat attack on you..😅
Kanzul
is there any past memory relate with this?
Kanzul
yes i think that cat will attack me but i just saw cats in dreams attacking me
Tasneem
can you understand hindi?
Kanzul
urdu
Tasneem
اچھا ہے..آپ نے کبھی علم نفسیات اور خواب کی تعبیرات کی کتابیں پڑی ہے..اپنے آپ کو درست کرنے کے لیے یہ سب سے بہترین نسخہ ہے..
Kanzul
the cat is your mind reflecting your Self. you are not afraid of cats, the cat is just a symbol for the fear you have of life and death. Cat is life, cat eats lizard, cat brings death. You are either the cat or the lizard, in your subconscious mind.
Will
next time you dream, ask your mind to become the cat
Will
Where is semantic memory u mentioned the name but didn't disscuss the topic..?
Iqra Reply
If u have want to make happy ur babby not by blood but by heart by giving all ur time to them but ur mother wants u to gave that time on urself and ur studies and that makes her happy and mom doesnot know that i accept her as my babby she thought she is just my friend
Iqra
Actually she is 4 years younger than me but i love her and said my baabby to her what should i do now?
Iqra
If anyone can help me plz do it i am super depressed
Iqra
Hlo Iqra...
IAS
Hi!
Iqra
?
Iqra
If u r in real conjunction wd him say ur mom fluently that I wana make him mine I feel depressed
IAS
Mom has best hearing power as to understood her/his baby
IAS
But my mom dont accept that she think i am just runing my life
Iqra
U have to b very clear wd ur mom
IAS
Where from u
IAS
Well i didn't tell about that but i said i love her she is like my soul sister and i love to gave her time but she said if u want to meat her itsok but dont talk on phone because u consume alot time on her and thats not fair
Iqra
Bhai i am from earth
Iqra
How can I suggest u it WL take alot time
IAS
Actually she dont like her because i gave 3 to 4 hours on phone to her
Iqra
Where frm u r?
IAS
Okay thank u so much bhai i think i got my answer
Iqra
whats your relation with her ? where you meet her nd why your mom forbid you from talking with her
Tasneem
Ur most welcome sister
IAS
She live in my neighborhood we are frnds from childhood but she is 4 yeras younger than me thats why i called her my bachaa and i gave alot of time to her because she have no sister brother and also no frnd and my mom dont like that
Iqra
Because 3 to 4 hours on phone she dont like usage of phone so much no one did accept me infront her thats why she is against her she dont hate her she just said meet her face to face not on phone
Iqra
Okay thank u so much all of u now i am feeling good and got my answe also
Iqra
yeah your mom said right but dont talk too face to face sometimes things that are above limits leads to problems
Tasneem
welcome😊
Tasneem
Yeah u are right inshallah everything will be alright soon
Iqra
Thank u
Iqra
inshaa allah..
Tasneem
i have a question?
Melissa
Yea
Iqra
Yes u can ask
Iqra
what is one strategy that would promote positive risk taking behavior?
Melissa
I dont know
Iqra
Why do I get upset when my girlfriend doesn't tell me she loves me back in front of her friends?
Apollo Reply
Do not depend on her, or don't hope just take care of her ..it doesn't matter that how much she love you..matter that how much you love her..
Kanzul
Because you're insecure, read "The Rational Male" by Rollo Tomassi if you want to make sure that you and your girlfriend are/remain satisfied in your relationship
Leon
and don't listen to Kanzul, don't be a pushover
Leon
may be you are suspicios if she stay around her male friends
Kanzul
Thank you both, yeah umm it makes sense that I'm insecure and yeah I mean I do love her alot the thing is it's not with her Male friends it's in general.
Apollo
But also what is considered a pushover so I can avoid that Leon
Apollo
what is this that a persom constantly saw dream from very early age till now nd saw same dream what is this
Tasneem Reply
Your soul
Candy
how
Tasneem
it is your inner being,it knows, your heart,inner spirit
Candy
dayshavoo
Candy
thank you
Tasneem
😊
Tasneem
samething keeps happening,repeat
Candy
why do I have dreams of my boyfriend boss
Nicole Reply
Because you love him and his memories. Or that you are reminded of him very often.
Jobin
There are some explanation why we have dream. It can be just your brain picking random memory in your brain when you sleep (eventhough we sleep our brain still working) and this random memory your brain pick out become your dream
Kelly
👍
Jobin
or this boss left an impression in you, but it doesn't necessarily mean you have a romantic feelings towards this person. Maybe this boss just do some random thing and it left an impression in your memory and you still think about it subconsciously when you sleep and it manifested itself in ur dream
Kelly
That is perfectly normal and no cause for worry. You might not want to tell your boyfriend though ;)
Leon
What do you think is the reason for your friends or the family members coming into the dreams especially wet dreams? And after that what's the feeling of the person?
Jobin
how to get rid of fearful avoidant issues
Alexsus Reply
Do you think that seminary student needs psychological studies?
Jobin Reply
I think it's best for high schoolers.. we all should be aware of what we are
Alexsus
Yes definitely, especially in an age like this were more and more I've observed students not knowing what they truly are and not knowing how to deal with psychological issues. Plus, it gives them the advantage of knowing how to deal with other people with different ideas and issues.
Tav
Absolutely. How would you be able to make any serious decisions in your life, when you are a mess and don't understand your feelings, motivation and reasoning behind this or that issue. Moreover, I think whether you are a seminary student or not, you should also be taught critical thinking skills.
Sofia
Thank you all
Jobin
whats is schizophrenia
mobile Reply
long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
Amber
What is burn out syndrome?
Jobin
Emotional and physical exhaustion which appears after a long period of stress.
Avram
what is social conflict
deen Reply
a conversation with someone & having conflict with .
Candy
Soory Guys hope you ar doing well Im in strong desire to get this kind of book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY but ther cost is too and I'm not able to buy it If you see this announcement please I need soft copy even few please
jacobo
Anybody who is able to access this book just help even soft copy to saves me Im so soory
jacobo
Deen social conflict means misunderstand occurred among the people in a certain social context can be caused by poor governance
jacobo
what is top-notch?
Vi Reply
excellent? the best?
Travis
the very best.
Snuffles
best of something. above the expectation
Jem
something like expert level
Evil
zenith
Syed
Hi! what is introspection?
jacobo
the ultimate best.. of excellent quality
Melissa
honor and respect
Randall
Understanding
Candy
Hi! This book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY I'm not able to buy anybody can help me even soft copy
jacobo
i want some pdf books who can help me
Google "libgen", you can download almost any book there. I can't send the link as links are blocked by the app
Leon
is there any website where I can get a true diagnosis of a personality disorder I think I may possess? I can't seek therapy due to insurance complications
Bailey Reply
Well most websites that offer actual medical diagnoses cost money or they will connect you to a doctor for some sort of meeting.
Elise
yeah I've been looking for a decent site for around a year now and that's all Ive found thank you
Bailey
Yeah it is quite hard to find a reliable site.
Elise
diagnosis couldn't get from a websites. you have to refer a doctors for a consultation.
Muhamad
please which site can I download child psychology textbook?
patience
Compare and contrast situational influences and dispositional influences and give an example of each. Explain how situational influences and dispositional influences might explain inappropriate behavior.
Babafemi Reply
please tell me about ethical consideration and research method
Its Reply
what is an ethical consideration that is what a search for my research is seeking out the truth what lies in the darkness and it's hidden by the light
Rev
Ethical consideration includes the risk of doing your research
Mary
***cirt.gcu.edu/research/developmentresources/tutorials/ethics
Amanda
as well as the research can not have lasting affects on the subjects.
Amanda
Is this live
Little
We as researchers should not harm the subjects of our research, be it the population under study or the selected sample. I think ethical consideration requires that we disclose as much as is practically possible about the requirements of the research to all concerned.
Abel
It is ethically sound also to to acknowledge others' findings wherever we reference them in our research because we are to build and grow the body of knowledge by building on the research others have done. This is my contribution.
Abel
What is CBT?
ANTONIO Reply
cognitive behavioral therapy
Joni
When they use this CBT?
zahir
what is cbt
Timothy
mostly used to help treat anxiety and depression related diagnosis. But it's used in other types of mental health issues.
Joni
cognitive behavioral therapy. As stated earlier in this discussion.
Joni
Thank yoi
zahir
Hello! Does anyone have access of these books or articles. (E.Fuller Torrey-Freudian Freud:The malignant effect of freud's theory on American Thought and culture) (Richard Webster-Why Freud was wrong:sin,science and psychoanalysis)?
Amina Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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