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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Recognize the essential nature of schizophrenia, avoiding the misconception that it involves a split personality
  • Categorize and describe the major symptoms of schizophrenia
  • Understand the interplay between genetic, biological, and environmental factors that are associated with the development of schizophrenia
  • Discuss the importance of research examining prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a devastating psychological disorder that is characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. About 1% of the population experiences schizophrenia in their lifetime, and usually the disorder is first diagnosed during early adulthood (early to mid-20s). Most people with schizophrenia experience significant difficulties in many day-to-day activities, such as holding a job, paying bills, caring for oneself (grooming and hygiene), and maintaining relationships with others. Frequent hospitalizations are more often the rule rather than the exception with schizophrenia. Even when they receive the best treatments available, many with schizophrenia will continue to experience serious social and occupational impairment throughout their lives.

What is schizophrenia? First, schizophrenia is not a condition involving a split personality; that is, schizophrenia is not the same thing as dissociative identity disorder (better known as multiple personality disorder). These disorders are sometimes confused because the word schizophrenia first coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1911, derives from Greek words that refer to a “splitting” (schizo) of psychic functions (phrene) (Green, 2001).

Schizophrenia is considered a psychotic disorder, or one in which the person’s thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors are impaired to the point where she is not able to function normally in life. In informal terms, one who suffers from a psychotic disorder (that is, has a psychosis) is disconnected from the world in which most of us live.

Symptoms of schizophrenia

The main symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, disorganized or abnormal motor behavior, and negative symptoms (APA, 2013). A hallucination    is a perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation. Auditory hallucinations (hearing voices) occur in roughly two-thirds of patients with schizophrenia and are by far the most common form of hallucination (Andreasen, 1987). The voices may be familiar or unfamiliar, they may have a conversation or argue, or the voices may provide a running commentary on the person’s behavior (Tsuang, Farone,&Green, 1999).

Less common are visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there) and olfactory hallucinations (smelling odors that are not actually present).

Delusions are beliefs that are contrary to reality and are firmly held even in the face of contradictory evidence. Many of us hold beliefs that some would consider odd, but a delusion is easily identified because it is clearly absurd. A person with schizophrenia may believe that his mother is plotting with the FBI to poison his coffee, or that his neighbor is an enemy spy who wants to kill him. These kinds of delusions are known as paranoid delusions , which involve the (false) belief that other people or agencies are plotting to harm the person. People with schizophrenia also may hold grandiose delusions , beliefs that one holds special power, unique knowledge, or is extremely important. For example, the person who claims to be Jesus Christ, or who claims to have knowledge going back 5,000 years, or who claims to be a great philosopher is experiencing grandiose delusions. Other delusions include the belief that one’s thoughts are being removed (thought withdrawal) or thoughts have been placed inside one’s head (thought insertion). Another type of delusion is somatic delusion    , which is the belief that something highly abnormal is happening to one’s body (e.g., that one’s kidneys are being eaten by cockroaches).

Questions & Answers

what does Hedonist mean?
Happy Reply
a person whose actions are solely motivated by personal pleasure, without any care about if and how it hurts anyone.
It's the doctrine of Aristippus, that pleasure or happiness is the chief good and chief end of man (Greek- hedone, pleasure).
a person who always seeks pleasure...a person who believes that pleasure is everything
Hedonism, as compared to the sexualvalues of relativism and absolutism, involves sexual behavior based on the pursuit of pleasure without the requirement for love and/or commitment.
in short, sex without feelings.
sex without feelings, just like make up with dolls😂
well, yes, it could involve that, but extreme cases, a person could start violating others so as to satiate his own libido. Sex with dolls and stuff is quite small stuff compared to that. Basically, what pleases them, they do, so are quite dangerous in that sense.
Why do you think red room and stuff exist? for the pleasure of few, but still, for pleasure. Freud indeed was right in pointing out the cause of all evil in the world- sex.
yes but still some people engage themselves in sex without any feeling ...eg.prostitution
@poorvi umm.. that's like saying the people who didn't help the Jews were Nazis, disregarding the fact that their hands were tied, and they could've done otherwise even if they tried to. how many of the prostitutes are true nymphomaniacs? quite a few to none.
But how many were forced to it by circumstances, or even trafficked? many to almost 90%. from homelessness to loans, even drug addiction, that's a major cause as well.
they can't be called hedonists, for they are not. though they could be, if that is, they are nymphomaniacs
you're absolutely right...but how can a person lose the addiction of pleasures ?
enjoying pleasure is a base human characteristic, it's being a slave to them, so much so that you refuse to recognize needs and exercise care of others in front of your own pleasures, that is dangerous and should be rid of.
Christianity tried to curb it, but instead ended up declaring sex in itself wrong. several ways were introduced for this, from Chastity belts to whips for giving in to the evil of the temptation, hell even looking for too long at someone.
again as Freud said, religion tried to kill sex, it didn't die, but became poisonous instead.
yes correct
hey I just love psychology bcz I wanna improve myself through psychology...so can I ?
help can be sought for this, don't, I repeat DON'T try these orthodox methods, they work not
yes you can, start off small, but from the greats, Freud and Jung, you'll know much of psychology by just studying these two
Orthodox methods means ?
yk, trying to completely avoid pleasures, for as Osho said, prohibition becomes invitation. 'No Graffiti Zone' has the most graffiti. write don't peep inside on a door ajar and almost every passerby will peep in. so if you try to completely be void of desires then they'll only grow on you
(was still talking about pleasure and how to get rid of it 😅)
hey..I'm the student of class 11and I'm trying to engage myself more in studies...in simple words I wanna change myself I wanna improve myself ...I wanna be a good girl...plz plzz suggest some tips and how can I change my thinking and life..
that's why I was asking about the pleasure psychology
it'll be even better if you have a philosophical background as well.
yes I have that too...I'm biggest fan of osho and buddha
first things first poorvi, I don't know you, but unless you've hurt someone real real bad, like they couldn't heal, I'll say you ARE a good girl. so with that in mind, how to improve yourself even further? well, if it's studies then it depends on which line of study are you planning to pursue?
but wait who were Freud and Jung
they are Giants in the field of psychology, two most prominent schools are Jungian and Freudian. (Carl Gustav Jung and Sigmund Freud)
I wanna be a doctor and trying to pursue this goal
any specific branch in mind? like cardio or surgery or anything?
yaa oncology .. cancer surgeon bcz I wanna give the treatment to the weak section of our country who can't afford the treatment
ok, so your vocation has been decided for you by your parents. never mind, for it can't be changed and you will probably not agree to this, saying no you personally feel so.
by the way what you do or what you wanna be ?even what is your name
Anyway, the most important thing for you right now will be to not let your mind wander, to properly focus your chakras. I'll advise you to revise your study and sleep schedule so as to include a minimum of ½ hour to 1 hour study a day to max 2½ hours to ౩½ hours.
the name is Ckbite, you can look me up on insta, or Google me
and don't sit at a stretch to study for long, that way disinterest will seep in.
I can study max 4-5 hrs only...omg I can google you 😯😯
break your study hours into little packets of one one hour (or half, your call) and take a ten minute minimum break in between to get your mind back
thanks for suggestion but dear its hard to follow 😌
yes, have written some stuff, not proud of it, yet not ashamed either. though I'll advise you to not to read it, it's kinda instigating.
it ain't. I myself am from both math and science background, PCBM, and followed this tactic scoring not much, yet still a grand 82 percent
which one do you like most bio or maths ? are you doing mbbs ?
hated both equally, got out and into a totally different stream after 12. am not much of a sucker for mainstream stuff
don't study at stretch, but in small small periods. next, get notes from Allen, arrange for them, they really help. next, set small goals, not that you have to finish this whole chapter in a week, but that you have to cover these two pages in two days or something, that way when you'll accomplish -
that, your brain will produce the reward hormones (I forget the name) and you will stay interested and it might even become fun, and kinda challenging
hmm ok I'll try
are you talking about the dopamine ?
don't compare to others, but try and defeat your own time. like I had completed two pages in two days, today I'll try three pages in two days.
seems odd I know, childish even,but that's the way brain works, if it senses youre doing great, it puts in even more effort
after taking break engag in studies again is too difficult
it's easy, mark your last read spot, and when you get back, start from a or two paragraphs before that, so that you can catch the thread once again
after taking breaks mind says "hey no need to do study again...just play and have fun"
that's why set a fix time quota for a day, like if it's 2 hours you Have to study two hours, and it doesn't work in the long run,but for starters you can try the reward system
like if I study this much, I can watch this movie I wanted to. you know, keep your brain interested, as though it's a game, that's how you have to play. mind is a funny thing, but fooling it is quite easy
okay I got you...thanks
no need for that. if you need any other help in future, you can contact me on Facebook or Instagram or Snapchat, the username being the same 'CKBITE'
no need for that. if you need any other help in future, you can contact me on insta or SC, the username being the same 'CKBITE'
may what's the best for you happen
hey I couldn't find your page but can you msg me on i_believe_in_your_dreams...dp is of red coloured and the recent post is of blue colour
Hi. Can we have a discussion on narcissism?
Anindya Reply
ya shoot, you're almost speaking to one.
I feel it happens when a certain person lacks attention so they turn to them self (which is good in some ways) ....I mean Im making a guess but every person has their story 🙏
anything specific? I'm all ears.
Narcissism fr seeking attention?!! U can say they always want attention, but it can't be the the reason
Yeah that's why I mentioned that every person has their story, it varies ik
What abt general narcissism?
i just got out of a relationship with a narcissist 2 months ago. it's more than a person wanting attention, but thats part of it. they want to be center of attention, the one & only. they'll do anything to get it including psychological and physical abuse. in some it comes from childhood.
well, nope. I won't call myself a true blue narcissist, but I just know that I AM better than most of these people around. time and again when a person is downtrodden, his love made fun of, what else can he do, but love himself? that is a narcissist for you, from narcissus (Greek mythology).
Kora true. Good to hear that u got of tht abusive relationship. All the best to u for your coming days
a person in love with his own self, do not mistake it for God complex or anything else, the term has been abused much with time. but it simply means a self obsessed person, he won't give a flying frick about your opinion enough to force you even to respect him. he knows he's the best.
And if he does do that, abusing people, trying to establish dominance, he is NOT just a narcissist (assuming he is also it)
Kora I would like to know if a narcissist develops a compulsive sexual behaviour? If u can pls put some light in this regard
the dictionary meaning of narcissist is: "narcissist n. one who admires oneself; one who is in love with oneself" Just that, being an arsehole and justifying it with the garb of narcissism is the purest BS I've ever heard.
@anindya sexual narcissism, now that narrows down the field. they only care about themselves, so obviously it'll be rough, might border on the line of BDSM in extreme cases, male Superior position will be most likely
love making, would be replaced by just a fulfilment of his own desires. and will be quite charming before, but totally indifferent and cold afterwards
According to research on sex addiction and narcissism, both men and women in the sex- and pornography-addicted population also have narcissistic tendencies.
He'll need to be assured that he's the best sex you've ever had, that he was quite strong, yk, to salve his ego.
hedonist is the accurate term for them though 😅
Define Intelligence.
Emma Reply
The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
the ability to think rationally,and adapt to the situation
there is no such thing like intelligence ...its a tool of division a comparison for humans to idealise do nothing meaningful
daym @ecstasy the. I don't know how anyone can follow up on that
@ anonymous ....dont get it
Intelligence is level of brain power with the ability to use facts to determine how to deal with a set of situations.
Intelligence can be defined as food for the brain. It gives the brain a great stimuli of energy to function at it's best . The greatest benefit to this resource, it allows you to define every avenue of your life. Example- It can be a defense mechanism from knowledge that hasn't been proven.
what does BS Psychology do? or what jobs are available?
Samwan Reply
Hello guys good morning
Tanam Reply
gud mornin
Good evening, I hope everyone is having a great day! :)
Fine namira
What makes people with sickle cell not fat does the illness damage their body?
Normally, RBCs are shaped like discs, which gives them the flexibility to travel through even the smallest blood vessels. However, with this disease, the RBCs have an abnormal crescent shape resembling a sickle. This makes them sticky and rigid and prone to getting trapped in small vessels
this leads to blood not reaching much to parts, leading to anaemia. and hence them not being able to gain any weight
nice I see
I have a question regarding counselling.
A teenaged girl comes up to a therapist and speaks about her issues that she is having with her mother, for instance, she wants something from her mother ( attention, care and love) that is she is deprived of. How do we counsel her? what do we tell her in such a situation where she cannot directly
convey her needs to her mother.
natural law therapy
first, like, try to get to know how is her conversational relationship with her mother. that if her mother blatantly ignores her, or doesn't pay much attention or what. also try to pry if their relationship is strained or okay okay or good.
your next course of action can only be decided by the answer to this
if her mother is like, not that good a parent, try to bring her in in therapy as well, if she's an okay okay one, have her and the girl sit down and talk in front of you. and if she's a good parent, all you have to do is encourage the girl to talk.
and also talk to the mother explaining​ that a healthy discussion or even a simple heart to heart with children is a must
Alright, thankyou so much. :)
What made psychology be studied under philosophy
fatima Reply
..Cos everything begins with the love of Wisdom
first ,explain what is psychology and philosophy .Then you state and explain the various reasons for which psychology was studied under philosophy.
Then you give a suitable conclusion.
please can anyone help me with different between Cognitive and Personality structure
cognitive deals with mind and metal while personality deals with physical actions
cognitive is nothing but our way of processing the information....were as personality is totally different ....that it relates to our environment....that means how we behave according to our circumstances...
now are u clear
what is psychology
Beatriz Reply
Psychology is the study of soul
scientific study of mind and behavior
a real life example of humanistic model
Alexsus Reply
what is a linear relationship
Happy Reply
directly related. like if one factor changes, so will the other
explain the process of visua sensation
David Reply
Sensation is defined as the stimulation of sense organs Visual sensation is a physiological process which means that it is the same for everyone. We absorb energy such as electro magnetic energy (light) or sound waves by sensory organs such as eyes.
what is selective attention?
Happy what did you say visual sensation is ?
please make your explanation clear for us
you mean you experience sensation by what you see..
I thought it was by what your five senses interpreted
visual has to do with the eyes alone
sensory has to do with all the sense organs ranging from the eyes,nose, skin,tongue and ear
selective attention is focusing on a particular stimulus out of myriads of stimuli
visual sensation in simple terms is standing from far it seems to assume that the trees are emerged but when you get they totally separated
seeing the trees been emerged is the visual sensation.That is my understanding, you can also find out
a woman watch me all time why
Janak Reply
because it is hard to test alot of things in it empiricaly
Ahmed Reply
good Morning, I want someone to give me a lecture on levels of conscious
Tebukoza Reply
why is psyche represented as a butterfly?
Gabriella Reply
Psyche's mythological imagery in ancient art is represented with butterfly wings, amply depicted in pottery as well. ... The metamorphosis of the butterfly inspired many to use butterflies as a symbol of the soul's exit from the body. Thus, the myth of Psyche concomitantly signifies soul and butterf
ok thanks
On what basis do people argue that genes do not set limits on a person's potential?
Shruti Reply
The Nature-Nature Thingy
Nature vs nurture
well, going by Polygenic Hypothesis formulated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), each (even all) gene(s) affects every complex trait. from physical to even one's mental growth (though it's still debatable).
Like you know, the selfish gene, like genes passed on to generation after generation​; and if a person with a certain gene arrangement pattern meets someone remotely resembling even a part of it, he/she'll automatically behave selflessly towards the other person.
somewhat linking to the idea of soulmates, and Plato's idea of conjoint men and women who were split by God and hence strive to become one yet again. (I know I'm wandering away from psychology here)
But IQ is affected by both genes and environment.
"Other studies at the world-leading Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research suggest that many of our traits are more than 50% inherited, including obedience to authority, vulnerability to stress, and risk-seeking. "
as for effect of the environment, study of epigenetics shows that how many inherited traits only get “switched on” in certain environments.
BUT, "Various options are pencilled in by our genes, and our life experiences determine which get inked." That is, what gets 'unlocked' depends on our experience and environment factor.
like determining if a person will be introvert or extrovert, by just observing his parents is not enough. though it does contribute a major part.
so, I'd like to go against your question (somewhat) and say, genes do set limitations, but what some genes only 'unlock' under certain circumstances and environment, so they don't limit it totally
hope it helped. @ me (CK) if any doubts or queries remain

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