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In situations with a polyatomic eluent, three models are used to account for the multiple anions in the eluent. The first is the dominant equilibrium model, in which one anion is so dominant in concentration; the other eluent anions are ignored. The dominant equilibrium model works best for multivalence analytes. The second is the effective charge model, where an effective charge of the eluent anions is found, and a relationship similar to EQ is found with the effective charge. The effective charge models works best with monovalent analytes. The third is the multiple eluent species model, where [link] describes the retention factor:

C 3 is a constant that includes the phase volume ratio between stationary, the equilibrium constant, and mobile and the exchange capacity. C p is the total concentration of the eluent species. X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , correspond to the shares of a particular eluent anion in the retention of the analyte.

Retention models of cation chromatography

For eluents with a single cation and analytes that are alkaline earth metals, heavy metals or transition metals, a complexing agent is used to bind with the metal during chromatography. This introduces the quantity A(m) to the retention rate calculations, where A(m) is the ratio of free metal ion to the total concentration of metal. Following a similar derivation to the single anion case, [link] is found.

Solving for the retention coefficient, [link] is found.

From this expression, the retention rate of the cation can be determined from eluent concentration and the ratio of free metal ions to the total concentration of the metal, which itself is depended on the equilibrium of the metal ion with the complexing agent.

Solid phase packing materials

The solid phase packing material used in the chromatography column is important to the exchange capacity of the anion or cation. There are many types of packing material, but all share a functional group that can bind either the anion or the cation complex. The functional group is mounted on a polymer surface or sphere, allowing large surface area for interaction.

Packing material for anion chromatography

The primary functional group used for anion chromatography is the ammonium group. Amine groups are mounted on the polymer surface, and the pH is lowered to produce ammonium groups. As such, the exchange capacity is depended on the pH of the eluent. To reduce the pH dependency, the protons on the ammonium are successively replaced with alkyl groups until the all the protons are replaced and the functional group is still positively charged, but pH independent. The two packing materials used in almost all anion chromatography are trimethylamine (NMe 3 , [link] ) and dimethylanolamine ( [link] ).

A trimethylamine mounted on a polymer used as a solid phase packing material.
A dimethylethanolamine mounted on a polymer used as solid phase packing material.

Packing material for cation chromatography

Cation chromatography allows for the use of both organic polymer based and silica gel based packing material. In the silica gel based packing material, the most common packing material is a polymer-coated silica gel. The silicate is coated in polymer, which is held together by cross-linking of the polymer. Polybutadiene maleic acid ( [link] ) is then used to create a weakly acidic material, allowing the analyte to diffuse through the polymer and exchange. Silica gel based packing material is limited by the pH dependent solubility of the silica gel and the pH dependent linking of the silica gel and the functionalized polymer. However, silica gel based packing material is suitable for separation of alkali metals and alkali earth metals.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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