<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

To check your answer, consider the following:

(1) Be sure that you have properly cancelled the units in the unit conversion. If you have written the unit conversion factor upside down, the units will not cancel properly in the equation. If you accidentally get the ratio upside down, then the units will not cancel; rather, they will give you the wrong units as follows:

 km min × 1  hr 60  min = 1 60  km hr  min 2 , size 12{ { {"km"} over {"min"} } times { {1`"hr"} over {"60"`"min"} } = { {1} over {"60"} } { {"km" cdot "hr"} over {"min"} } } {}

which are obviously not the desired units of km/h.

(2) Check that the units of the final answer are the desired units. The problem asked us to solve for average speed in units of km/h and we have indeed obtained these units.

(3) Check the significant figures. Because each of the values given in the problem has three significant figures, the answer should also have three significant figures. The answer 30.0 km/hr does indeed have three significant figures, so this is appropriate. Note that the significant figures in the conversion factor are not relevant because an hour is defined to be 60 minutes, so the precision of the conversion factor is perfect.

(4) Next, check whether the answer is reasonable. Let us consider some information from the problem—if you travel 10 km in a third of an hour (20 min), you would travel three times that far in an hour. The answer does seem reasonable.

Solution for (b)

There are several ways to convert the average speed into meters per second.

(1) Start with the answer to (a) and convert km/h to m/s. Two conversion factors are needed—one to convert hours to seconds, and another to convert kilometers to meters.

(2) Multiplying by these yields

Average speed = 30 . 0 km h × 1 h 3,600 s × 1, 000 m 1 km , size 12{"Average"`"speed"="30" "." 0 { {"km"} over {h} } times { {1" h"} over {"3,600 s"} } times { {1,"000"" m"} over {"1 km"} } } {}
Average speed = 8 . 33 m s . size 12{"Average"`"speed"=8 "." "33" { {m} over {s} } } {}

Discussion for (b)

If we had started with 0.500 km/min, we would have needed different conversion factors, but the answer would have been the same: 8.33 m/s.

You may have noted that the answers in the worked example just covered were given to three digits. Why? When do you need to be concerned about the number of digits in something you calculate? Why not write down all the digits your calculator produces? The module Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures will help you answer these questions.

Nonstandard units

While there are numerous types of units that we are all familiar with, there are others that are much more obscure. For example, a firkin is a unit of volume that was once used to measure beer. One firkin equals about 34 liters. To learn more about nonstandard units, use a dictionary or encyclopedia to research different “weights and measures.” Take note of any unusual units, such as a barleycorn, that are not listed in the text. Think about how the unit is defined and state its relationship to SI units.

Some hummingbirds beat their wings more than 50 times per second. A scientist is measuring the time it takes for a hummingbird to beat its wings once. Which fundamental unit should the scientist use to describe the measurement? Which factor of 10 is the scientist likely to use to describe the motion precisely? Identify the metric prefix that corresponds to this factor of 10.

The scientist will measure the time between each movement using the fundamental unit of seconds. Because the wings beat so fast, the scientist will probably need to measure in milliseconds, or 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {} seconds. (50 beats per second corresponds to 20 milliseconds per beat.)

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

One cubic centimeter is equal to one milliliter. What does this tell you about the different units in the SI metric system?

The fundamental unit of length (meter) is probably used to create the derived unit of volume (liter). The measure of a milliliter is dependent on the measure of a centimeter.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Summary

  • Physical quantities are a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements.
  • Units are standards for expressing and comparing the measurement of physical quantities. All units can be expressed as combinations of four fundamental units.
  • The four fundamental units we will use in this text are the meter (for length), the kilogram (for mass), the second (for time), and the ampere (for electric current). These units are part of the metric system, which uses powers of 10 to relate quantities over the vast ranges encountered in nature.
  • The four fundamental units are abbreviated as follows: meter, m; kilogram, kg; second, s; and ampere, A. The metric system also uses a standard set of prefixes to denote each order of magnitude greater than or lesser than the fundamental unit itself.
  • Unit conversions involve changing a value expressed in one type of unit to another type of unit. This is done by using conversion factors, which are ratios relating equal quantities of different units.

Conceptual questions

Identify some advantages of metric units.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Problems&Exercises

The speed limit on some interstate highways is roughly 100 km/h. (a) What is this in meters per second? (b) How many miles per hour is this?

  1. 27 . 8 m/s size 12{"27" "." 8`"m/s"} {}
  2. 62 . 1 mph size 12{"62" "." 1" mph"} {}
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A car is traveling at a speed of 33 m/s size 12{"33"" m/s"} {} . (a) What is its speed in kilometers per hour? (b) Is it exceeding the 90 km/h size 12{"90"" km/h"} {} speed limit?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Show that 1 . 0 m/s = 3 . 6 km/h size 12{1 "." 0`"m/s"=3 "." "6 km/h"} {} . Hint: Show the explicit steps involved in converting 1 . 0 m/s = 3 . 6 km/h. size 12{1 "." 0`"m/s"=3 "." "6 km/h"} {}

1.0 m s = 1 . 0 m s × 3600 s 1 hr × 1 km 1000 m size 12{ { {1 "." "0 m"} over {s} } = { {1 "." "0 m"} over {s} } times { {"3600 s"} over {"hr"} } times { {1`"km"} over {"1000 m"} } } {}

= 3 . 6 km/h size 12{ {}=3 "." 6" km/h"} {} .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

American football is played on a 100-yd-long field, excluding the end zones. How long is the field in meters? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3.281 feet.)

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Soccer fields vary in size. A large soccer field is 115 m long and 85 m wide. What are its dimensions in feet and inches? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3.281 feet.)

length: 377 ft size 12{"377"" ft"} {} ; 4 . 53 × 10 3  in . size 12{4 "." "53" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " in" "." } {} width: 280 ft size 12{"280"" ft"} {} ; 3 . 3 × 10 3  in size 12{3 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " in"} {} .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What is the height in meters of a person who is 6 ft 1.0 in. tall? (Assume that 1 meter equals 39.37 in.)

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Mount Everest, at 29,028 feet, is the tallest mountain on the Earth. What is its height in kilometers? (Assume that 1 kilometer equals 3,281 feet.)

8 . 847 km size 12{8 "." "847"" km"} {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The speed of sound is measured to be 342 m/s size 12{"342"" m/s"} {} on a certain day. What is this in km/h?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Tectonic plates are large segments of the Earth’s crust that move slowly. Suppose that one such plate has an average speed of 4.0 cm/year. (a) What distance does it move in 1 s at this speed? (b) What is its speed in kilometers per million years?

(a) 1 . 3 × 10 9  m size 12{1 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } " m"} {}

(b) 40 km/My size 12{"40"" km/My"} {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

(a) Refer to [link] to determine the average distance between the Earth and the Sun. Then calculate the average speed of the Earth in its orbit in kilometers per second. (b) What is this in meters per second?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

How submarines floats one water the same time sink in water
Courage Reply
A submarine has the ability to float and sink. The ability to control buoyancy comes from the submarine'strim or ballast tanks which can be filled with either water or air, depending on whether the submarine needs to floator sink. When the submarine floats it means its trim tanks are filled with air
Arif
what is work
Ojo Reply
Force times distance
Karanja
product of force and distance...
Arif
Is physics a natural science?
Adebisi Reply
what is the difference between a jet engine and a rocket engine.
Samuel Reply
explain the relationship between momentum and force
Joseph Reply
A moment is equivalent multiplied by the length passing through the point of reaction and that is perpendicular to the force
Karanja
How to find Squirrel frontal area from it's surface area?
Pooja Reply
how do we arrange the electronic configuration of elements
Muhammed Reply
hi guys i am an elementary student
benedict Reply
hi
Dancan
hello
adolphus
are you an elementary student too?
benedict
no bro
adolphus
yes
Che
hi
Miranwa
yes
Miranwa
welcome
Miranwa
what is the four equation of motion
Miranwa
what is strain?
SAMUEL
Change in dimension per unit dimension is called strain. Ex - Change in length per unit length l/L.
ABHIJIT
strain is the ratio of extension to length..=e/l...it has no unit because both are in meters and they cancel each other
adeleke
How is it possible for one to drink a cold drink from a straw?
Karanja Reply
most possible as it is for you to drink your wine from your straw
Selina
state the law of conservation of energy
Sushma Reply
energy can neither be destroy or created,but can be change from one form to another
dare
yeah
Toheeb
it can neither be created nor destroyed
Toheeb
its so sample question dude
Muhsin
what is the difference between a principle and a law?
Mary Reply
where are from you wendy .?
ghulam
philippines
Mary
why?
Mary
you are beautiful
ghulam
are you physics student
ghulam
laws are ment to be broken
Ge
hehe ghulam where r u from?
Muhsin
yes
dare
principle are meant to be followed
dare
south Africa
dare
here Nigeria
Toheeb
principle is a rule or law of nature, or the basic idea on how the laws of nature are applied.
Ayoka
Rules are meant to be broken while principals to be followed
Karanja
principle is a rule or law of nature, or the basic idea on how the laws of nature are applied.
tathir
what is momentum?
prakash Reply
is the mass times velocity of an object
True
it is the product of mass and velocity of an object.
The momentum possessed by a body is generally defined as the product of its mass and velocity m×v
Usman
momentum is the product of the mass of a body of its velocity
Ugbesia
what about kg it is changing or not
vijay Reply
no mass is the quantity or amount of body so it remains constant everywhere
Ahsan
yes
Siyanbola
remains constant
taha
mass of an object is always constant. and that is universally applied.
Shii
mass of a body never changes but the weight can change due to variance of gravity at different points of the world
Saheed
what is hookes law
Joshua
mass of an object does not change
SAMUEL
Is weight a scalar quantity
esther Reply
weight is actually a force of gravity with which earth attracts us downwards so it is a vector quantity. and it has both direction and magnitude
Ahsan
ty
Denise
weight is the earth pull of the body
Ugbesia
why does weight change but not mass?
Theo
Theo, the mass of an object can change but it depends on how you define that object. First, you need to know that mass is the amount of matter an object has, and weight is mass*gravity (the "force" that attracts object A to the object B mass).
Nicolas
So if you face object A with object B, you will get a different result than facing object A with object C, so the weight of object A changes but not its mass.
Nicolas
Now, if you have an object and you take a part away from it, you are changing it mass. Lets use the human body and fat loss process as an example.
Nicolas
When you lose weight by doing exercise, you are being attracted by the same object before and after losing weight so the change of weight is related to a change of mass not a change of gravity.
Nicolas
The explanation of this is simple, we are composed of smaller particles, which are itself objects, so the loose of mass of an object actually is the separation of one object is two different ones.
Nicolas
But if you define an object because of its form and characteristics and not the amount of mass, then the object is the same but you have taken a part of it mass away.
Nicolas
Theo, weight =mass. gravity, here mass is fixed everywhere but gravity change in different places so weight change not mass.
ABHIJIT
yup weight changes and mass does not. That's why we're 1/3 our weight on the moon
clifford
weight is the product of mass × velocity w=m×v = m(v-u) but v=u+1/2at^ weight is a scalar quantity mass of an obj is the amount of particles that obj cont
Usman
mass is fixed always while weight is dynamic
Usman
Why does water wet glass but mercury does not?
Yusuf
thanks guys
Theo
Yusuf Shuaibu, for water the Adhessive force between water molecules and glass is greater than the cohessive force between it's own molecules but for Mercury the cohessive force will be greater in comparison with adhessive force. For this water wet glass but Mercury does not.
ABHIJIT
in electrostatic e bonite rod electron is static. they cannot flow to other. because static. is it correct?
prabir Reply
Is weight a scalar quantity
esther
wieght is the vector
ghulam
yes
Mohet
Yes
Karanja

Get the best College physics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask