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Work and energy can reveal distance, too

How far does the package in [link] coast after the push, assuming friction remains constant? Use work and energy considerations.

Strategy

We know that once the person stops pushing, friction will bring the package to rest. In terms of energy, friction does negative work until it has removed all of the package’s kinetic energy. The work done by friction is the force of friction times the distance traveled times the cosine of the angle between the friction force and displacement; hence, this gives us a way of finding the distance traveled after the person stops pushing.

Solution

The normal force and force of gravity cancel in calculating the net force. The horizontal friction force is then the net force, and it acts opposite to the displacement, so θ = 180º . To reduce the kinetic energy of the package to zero, the work W fr by friction must be minus the kinetic energy that the package started with plus what the package accumulated due to the pushing. Thus W fr = 95 . 75 J . Furthermore, W fr = f d cos θ = – f d , where d is the distance it takes to stop. Thus,

d = W fr f = 95.75 J 5.00 N , size 12{ { {d}} sup { ' }= - { {W rSub { size 8{"fr"} } } over {f} } = - { { - "95" "." "75"`J} over {5 "." "00 N"} } } {}

and so

d = 19 .2 m . size 12{ { {d}} sup { ' }="19" "." 2" m"} {}

Discussion

This is a reasonable distance for a package to coast on a relatively friction-free conveyor system. Note that the work done by friction is negative (the force is in the opposite direction of motion), so it removes the kinetic energy.

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Some of the examples in this section can be solved without considering energy, but at the expense of missing out on gaining insights about what work and energy are doing in this situation. On the whole, solutions involving energy are generally shorter and easier than those using kinematics and dynamics alone.

Section summary

  • The net work W net is the work done by the net force acting on an object.
  • Work done on an object transfers energy to the object.
  • The translational kinetic energy of an object of mass m moving at speed v is KE = 1 2 mv 2 size 12{"KE"= { {1} over {2} } ital "mv" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .
  • The work-energy theorem states that the net work W net size 12{W rSub { size 8{"net"} } } {} on a system changes its kinetic energy, W net = 1 2 mv 2 1 2 m v 0 2 .

Conceptual questions

The person in [link] does work on the lawn mower. Under what conditions would the mower gain energy? Under what conditions would it lose energy?

A person pushing a lawn mower with a force F. Force is represented by a vector making an angle theta below the horizontal and distance moved by the mover is represented by vector d. The component of vector F along vector d is F cosine theta. Work done by the person, W, is equal to F d cosine theta.
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Work done on a system puts energy into it. Work done by a system removes energy from it. Give an example for each statement.

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When solving for speed in [link] , we kept only the positive root. Why?

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Problems&Exercises

Compare the kinetic energy of a 20,000-kg truck moving at 110 km/h with that of an 80.0-kg astronaut in orbit moving at 27,500 km/h.

1 / 250 size 12{1/"250"} {}

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(a) How fast must a 3000-kg elephant move to have the same kinetic energy as a 65.0-kg sprinter running at 10.0 m/s? (b) Discuss how the larger energies needed for the movement of larger animals would relate to metabolic rates.

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Confirm the value given for the kinetic energy of an aircraft carrier in [link] . You will need to look up the definition of a nautical mile (1 knot = 1 nautical mile/h).

1 . 1 × 10 10 J size 12{1 "." 1 times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " J"} {}

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(a) Calculate the force needed to bring a 950-kg car to rest from a speed of 90.0 km/h in a distance of 120 m (a fairly typical distance for a non-panic stop). (b) Suppose instead the car hits a concrete abutment at full speed and is brought to a stop in 2.00 m. Calculate the force exerted on the car and compare it with the force found in part (a).

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A car’s bumper is designed to withstand a 4.0-km/h (1.1-m/s) collision with an immovable object without damage to the body of the car. The bumper cushions the shock by absorbing the force over a distance. Calculate the magnitude of the average force on a bumper that collapses 0.200 m while bringing a 900-kg car to rest from an initial speed of 1.1 m/s.

2 . 8 × 10 3 N size 12{2 "." 8 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N"} {}

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Boxing gloves are padded to lessen the force of a blow. (a) Calculate the force exerted by a boxing glove on an opponent’s face, if the glove and face compress 7.50 cm during a blow in which the 7.00-kg arm and glove are brought to rest from an initial speed of 10.0 m/s. (b) Calculate the force exerted by an identical blow in the gory old days when no gloves were used and the knuckles and face would compress only 2.00 cm. (c) Discuss the magnitude of the force with glove on. Does it seem high enough to cause damage even though it is lower than the force with no glove?

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Using energy considerations, calculate the average force a 60.0-kg sprinter exerts backward on the track to accelerate from 2.00 to 8.00 m/s in a distance of 25.0 m, if he encounters a headwind that exerts an average force of 30.0 N against him.

102 N

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Questions & Answers

Give an example (but not one from the text) of a device used to measure time and identify what change in that device indicates a change in time.
David Reply
hour glass, pendulum clock, atomic clock?
S.M
tnks
David
how did they solve for "t" after getting 67.6=.5(Voy + 0)t
Martin Reply
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the topic is kinematics
David
can i get notes of solid state physics
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just check the chpt. 13 kinetic theory of matter it's there
David
is acceleration a fundamental unit.
David Reply
no it is derived
Abdul
no
Nisha
K thanks
David
hi guys can you teach me how to solve a logarithm?
Villaflor Reply
how about a conceptual framework can you simplify for me? needed please
Villaflor
Hello what happens when electrone stops its rotation around its nucleus if it possible how
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I think they are constantly moving
Villaflor
yep what is problem you are stuck into context?
S.M
not possible to fix electron position in space,
S.M
Physics
Beatriz
yes of course Villa flor
David
equations of kinematics for constant acceleration
Sagcurse Reply
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
Lila Reply
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is density=mass/volume Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury: Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000 mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
Sobirjon
the latter is true
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
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plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Emmanuel Reply
who can help me with my problem about acceleration?
Vann Reply
ok
Nicholas
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Vann
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
Ben
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
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who can help me with a relative density question
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morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
adefenwa Reply
no
Emmanuel
hi what is physical education?
Kate
BPED..is my course.
Kate
No
Emmanuel
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Lila
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
Sobirjon
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Ben
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
Richard
how to calculate velocity
Okwethu Reply
v=d/t
Emeka
his about the speed?
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how about speed
Villaflor
v=d/t
Nisha
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Jacob Reply
Mine is good. How about you?
Chase
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lawan Reply
yes,hi sir
Okwethu
hello
akinmeji
Hello
Mishael
hello
Jerry
hi
Sakhi
hi
H.C
so, what is going on here
akinmeji
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Ajayi
good morning ppl
ABDUL
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
Riaz Reply
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
Nuru
yea you are right
Badmus
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
Thomas
I guess that's it
Thomas
later people
Thomas
mathematics is everywhere
Anand
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
Nuru
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16.66 meters?
Darshik
16.71m2
aways
,i have a question of let me give answer
aways
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oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door
Olatunji Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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