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Explain why it is not possible to add a scalar to a vector.

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If you take two steps of different sizes, can you end up at your starting point? More generally, can two vectors with different magnitudes ever add to zero? Can three or more?

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Problems&Exercises

Use graphical methods to solve these problems. You may assume data taken from graphs is accurate to three digits.

Find the following for path A in [link] : (a) the total distance traveled, and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish.

A map of city is shown. The houses are in form of square blocks of side one hundred and twenty meters each. The path of A extends to three blocks towards north and then one block towards east. It is asked to find out the total distance traveled the magnitude and the direction of the displacement from start to finish.
The various lines represent paths taken by different people walking in a city. All blocks are 120 m on a side.

(a) 480 m size 12{"480 m"} {}

(b) 379 m size 12{"379 m"} {} , 18.4° size 12{"18" "." "4° east of north"} {} east of north

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Find the following for path B in [link] : (a) the total distance traveled, and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish.

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Find the north and east components of the displacement for the hikers shown in [link] .

north component 3.21 km, east component 3.83 km

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Suppose you walk 18.0 m straight west and then 25.0 m straight north. How far are you from your starting point, and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} , as in [link] , then this problem asks you to find their sum R = A + B size 12{"R = A + B"} {} .)

In this figure coordinate axes are shown. Vector A from the origin towards the negative of x axis is shown. From the head of the vector A another vector B is drawn towards the positive direction of y axis. The resultant R of these two vectors is shown as a vector from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B. This vector R is inclined at an angle theta with the negative x axis.
The two displacements A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} add to give a total displacement R size 12{R} {} having magnitude R size 12{R} {} and direction θ size 12{θ} {} .
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Suppose you first walk 12.0 m in a direction 20° size 12{"20" { size 12{°} } } {} west of north and then 20.0 m in a direction 40.0° size 12{"40" { size 12{°} } } {} south of west. How far are you from your starting point, and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} , as in [link] , then this problem finds their sum R = A + B size 12{ bold "R = A + B"} {} .)

In the given figure coordinates axes are shown. Vector A with tail at origin is inclined at an angle of twenty degrees with the positive direction of x axis. The magnitude of vector A is twelve meters. Another vector B is starts from the head of vector A and inclined at an angle of forty degrees with the horizontal. The resultant R of the vectors A and B is also drawn from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B. The inclination of vector R is theta with the horizontal.

19 . 5 m size 12{"19" "." "5 m"} {} , 4 . 65° size 12{4 "." "65°"} {} south of west

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Repeat the problem above, but reverse the order of the two legs of the walk; show that you get the same final result. That is, you first walk leg B size 12{B} {} , which is 20.0 m in a direction exactly 40° size 12{"20" { size 12{°} } } {} south of west, and then leg A size 12{A} {} , which is 12.0 m in a direction exactly 20° size 12{"20" { size 12{°} } } {} west of north. (This problem shows that A + B = B + A size 12{A+B=B+A} {} .)

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(a) Repeat the problem two problems prior, but for the second leg you walk 20.0 m in a direction 40.0° size 12{"40.0" { size 12{°} } } north of east (which is equivalent to subtracting B size 12{B} {} from A size 12{A} {} —that is, to finding R = A B size 12{ bold "R'"=A - B} {} ). (b) Repeat the problem two problems prior, but now you first walk 20.0 m in a direction 40.0° size 12{"40.0" { size 12{°} } } south of west and then 12.0 m in a direction 20.0° size 12{"20.0" { size 12{ ° } } } {} east of south (which is equivalent to subtracting A size 12{A} {} from B size 12{B} {} —that is, to finding R ′′ = B - A = - R size 12{R''= B – A = -R' } {} ). Show that this is the case.

(a) 26 . 6 m size 12{"26" "." "6 m"} {} , 65 . size 12{"65" "." "1°"} {} north of east

(b) 26 . 6 m size 12{"26" "." "6 m"} {} , 65 . size 12{"65" "." "1°"} {} south of west

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Show that the order of addition of three vectors does not affect their sum. Show this property by choosing any three vectors A size 12{A} {} , B size 12{B} {} , and C size 12{C} {} , all having different lengths and directions. Find the sum A + B + C size 12{ bold "A + B + C"} {} then find their sum when added in a different order and show the result is the same. (There are five other orders in which A size 12{A} {} , B size 12{B} {} , and C size 12{C} {} can be added; choose only one.)

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Show that the sum of the vectors discussed in [link] gives the result shown in [link] .

52 . 9 m size 12{"52" "." "9 m"} {} , 90 . size 12{"90" "." "1°"} {} with respect to the x -axis.

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Find the magnitudes of velocities v A size 12{v rSub { size 8{A} } } {} and v B size 12{v rSub { size 8{B} } } {} in [link]

On the graph velocity vector V sub A begins at the origin and is inclined to x axis at an angle of twenty two point five degrees. From the head of vector V sub A another vector V sub B begins. The resultant of the two vectors, labeled V sub tot, is inclined to vector V sub A at twenty six point five degrees and to the vector V sub B at twenty three point zero degrees. V sub tot has a magnitude of 6.72 meters per second.
The two velocities v A size 12{v rSub { size 8{A} } } {} and v B size 12{v rSub { size 8{B} } } {} add to give a total v tot size 12{v rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} .
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Find the components of v tot size 12{v rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} along the x - and y -axes in [link] .

x -component 4.41 m/s

y -component 5.07 m/s

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Find the components of v tot size 12{v rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} along a set of perpendicular axes rotated 30° size 12{"30°"} {} counterclockwise relative to those in [link] .

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Questions & Answers

Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
Giovani Reply
What is meant by dielectric charge?
It's Reply
what happens to the size of charge if the dielectric is changed?
Brhanu Reply
omega= omega not +alpha t derivation
Provakar Reply
u have to derivate it respected to time ...and as w is the angular velocity uu will relace it with "thita × time""
Abrar
do to be peaceful with any body
Brhanu Reply
the angle subtended at the center of sphere of radius r in steradian is equal to 4 pi how?
Saeed Reply
if for diatonic gas Cv =5R/2 then gamma is equal to 7/5 how?
Saeed
define variable velocity
Ali Reply
displacement in easy way.
Mubashir Reply
binding energy per nucleon
Poonam Reply
why God created humanity
Manuel Reply
Because HE needs someone to dominate the earth (Gen. 1:26)
Olorunfemi
why god made humenity
Ali
and he to multiply
Owofemi
stuff happens
Ju
God plays dice
Ju
Is the object in a conductor or an insulator? Justify your answer. whats the answer to this question? pls need help figure is given above
Jun Reply
ok we can say body is electrically neutral ...conductor this quality is given to most metalls who have free electron in orbital d ...but human doesn't have ...so we re made from insulator or dielectric material ... furthermore, the menirals in our body like k, Fe , cu , zn
Abrar
when we face electric shock these elements work as a conductor that's why we got this shock
Abrar
how do i calculate the pressure on the base of a deposit if the deposit is moving with a linear aceleration
ximena Reply
why electromagnetic induction is not used in room heater ?
Gopi Reply
room?
Abrar
What is position?
Amoah Reply
What is law of gravition
sushil Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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