<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

    Responsible risk management: associated basic moral concepts

  • Right : A capacity of action that others are obliged to recognize and respect. A key right in the context of risk is free and informed consent. (See below)
  • Duty : The obligation to recognize and respect the essential capacities of actions of others. Duties are correlative to rights. For example, the duty to avoid paternalism in the management and communication of risk is correlative to the right of free and informed consent.
  • Virtue : Responsible risk management can also be formulated as a virtue. Virtues are traits that extend "deep down" into an individual's character. They include an orientation toward excellence in decision and execution, perceptual sensitivities that help to uncover moral relevance, and emotions/attitudes that help motivate decisions and actions oriented toward achieving excellence. For example, a responsible risk communicator has curiosity that drives understanding and appreciating risk, a concern for the well being of the risk bearer, and a strong desire to communicate risk information truthfully and clearly.
  • Justice : Justice can be generally defined as giving each his or her due. Distributive justice, in the context of risk, prescribes a fair distribution of the benefits and harms associated with taking a certain risk. Ideal pattern approaches argue that distribution should conform to a pattern such as equality (equal shares to everyone), need (greatest share to those with the greatest needs), and merit (greatest share to those who demonstrate superior merit). Ideal pattern approaches require continual redistribution by government through measures such as a progressive income tax. Historical process approaches prefer maintaining current patterns of distribution provided the historical process leading to them has been free of force or fraud. Justice in the context of risk lies in determining how the benefits and harms associated with risk are distributed, and how the uncertainty that permeates the risk assessment and management process is distributed among those involved.
  • Responsibility : Herbert Fingarette defines responsibility (in the context of criminal insanity) as (moral) response to (moral) relevance. Different senses of responsibility include causal, legal (vs. moral), role, capacity, and blame. Responsibility can be reactive when it focuses on the past and the assigning of praise and blame; or it can be proactive when it turns to preventing harm (minimizing risk) and realizing value.
  • Trust : The expectation of moral behavior on the part of others. Trust is built out of the social capital accumulated through successful interactions with others. It is consumed or undermined by those who choose to free ride on social cooperation, i.e., compete while others are cooperating. The prisoner's dilemma (see link above) provides a simplified model to show the fragility of trust (m17367).

    Key terms in risk practices

  • Safety : "A thing is safe if, were its risks fully known, those risks would be judged acceptable in light of settled value principles." (IEE 108)
  • Risk : "A risk is the potential that something unwanted and harmful may occur." (IEE 108)
  • NIMBY : This acronym stands for "Not in my backyard." Citizens often find the risks associated with a project or product acceptable only if these are located somewhere else, i.e., in another person's backyard. NIMBY has made it next to impossible for the U.S. DOE (Department of Energy) to find an acceptable permanent storage facility for nuclear waste.
  • Free and Informed Consent : The right to decide if a risk is acceptable based on access to pertinent information and absence of compulsion. The Belmont Report defines informed consent in the following way: "[that] subjects, to the degree that they are capable, be given the opportunity to choose what shall or shall not happen to them. This opportunity is provided when adequate standards for informed consent are satisfied." The Online Ethics Center spells out conditions necessary for fulfilling informed consent: (a) disclosure (of information to the patient/subject); (b) comprehension (by the patient/subject of the information being disclosed); (c) voluntariness (of the patient/subject in making his/her choice); (d) competence (of the patient/subject to make a decision); and (e) consent (by the patient/subject).
  • Paternalism : Often experts are tempted to act as overly concerned parents and take over the decision-making perogatives of the public because they (the experts) "know better." Paternalism, while well motivated, is based on the misconception that the public doesn't understand risk because it often reaches different conclusions on the acceptability of a given risk than the expert. But the public often appreciates risk from a broader, richer standpoint, especially if the expert has properly and clearly communicated it. As will be seen below, the public perception of risk is rational because it is predictable.

Questions & Answers

can anyone suggest me good coaching in Indore MP India for m.a entrance of du psychology
How can one diagnose a patient with a mental disorder such as schizophrenia?
Kutwal Reply
Making the Diagnosis. To get an official diagnosi of schizophrenia, your loved one has to show at least two of the following symptom most of the time for a month, and some mental disturbance over six months: Delusions (false beliefs that the person won't give up, even when they get proof that they'r
they're not ture)
Can sombody write me here about Pinoccio in psychodynamic perspective?
Amina Reply
what is the nature and nurture perspective of personality?
Khan Reply
are there significant differences between methamphetamine and it's long term effects on male cognitive behavioral and function versus female?
Shiloh Reply
effects will be the same( male & female)
tell me more
no. it's much worse on females. almost s complete polar switch
please is there any difference between abnormal behaviour and normal behaviour?
Ayodele Reply
yes abnormal behavior is "not normal ", actions in society's eyes. an example of abnormal behavior (I remember from a textbook) ; a man who runs around frantically in a grocery store licking strangers'(women's) shoes because when he was a baby his mom would tickle his feet/give them special attentio
yes there is a difference between abnormal and normal behaviour... This is simply because abnormal behaviour is deviating from the normal behaviour of the society while normal behaviour is obeying the moral standards in the society.
how about disorders? like, always having a tantrums and irrational most of the time?
a behavior becomes pathological when 1. there is a before and after : you can see a real change of behavior/cognition or 2. behavior is pathological when it makes yourself or others suffer
what is difference between disease and disorder
disease demand medicin but disorder demands care plus medicin
I think the concept of normal and abnormal behavior in general is not much of psychological concept but more of sociological concept. A behavior or act in itself is not normal or abnormal. How society perceives that specific behavior, that's what decides what's normal.
For instance, gay marriage is considered normal where homosexuality is legalized. Where it isn't legalized, its abnormal.
So there cannot be an absolute answer for your question
well abnormality is pretty much considered in popular society which is something of a correlation of psycholigical perspective reflected through activity... something abstract... or non trending or precedented. or maybe something disturbing or atypical for people in their respective birth cohorts.
please what are the schools of thought in psychology
if I told a girl that I will marry her how will she takes it when am to rate it in percentages
structuralism,functionalism,gestaltalism etc
what about Diathesis stress model ?
What is the difference between motivation and goal?
vishal Reply
goal is what you want to accomplish. motivation is what drives you to achieve it
motivation is ambitious and a goal is a ambition
But Motivation is just stay there for only short time
goal is our destination and motivation is a vehicle to reach goal
motivation is the One person improved in self development another person advices......... goal is achievement at one of the life.....
motivation is for our personality development thing but goal is our whole personality.
but its should be more remember without motivation no life no goal .
it's like this
if my goal is to get my degree. then me wanting a better job is my motivation. ultimately family
Motivation is the vehicle we use to reach our goal.
Please wat r the schools of psychology
i want the outline of it,its methodology
hi guys can someone help me how can I over or stress ?
Jennifer I need to take my own advice however stress relief is something that is done through catharsis which in my estimation is defined as a physical or mental activity used as therapy... that can include, yoga, meditation, sex, physical activity like a sport or martial art practice or sometimes .
the schools of psych I have no clue about
If you want to be something ,that we can say you have goal.But you will never be that without enough effort,if you getting accurate rewards from your surrounding as accepting you than before when you are trying to be something.that we can say motivation.it may be in the form of acceptance and suport
motiVation is the part of goal . but it has a backbone value for goal .with out motivation wo can not Think about our aim of life, our goals .
how do you get motivation? I'm such a lax person
can anyone help me we have a school in a third world country the kids are unable to learn, how can we help them motivate?
make it a game , if it's a 3rd world country then personal hygiene supplies would be a good prize to win
Maria can you explain that a little more
make them a set goal of so many pages to read or assigments to accomplish and go buy soap, toothpaste and toothbrush or even Candy and put it in front of the class so everyone can see the prizes and it will motivate them to finish first to get an award
ok Maria
what is mutation?
Amaya Reply
What is mindfulness
mindfulness means to be aware of the present
meaning that you are totally focussing on the present...and living in the moment
also present variables
hello guys
can someone help with few answers ?
hi what is all about ?
Folet Reply
The theory of evolution and its natural selection is a given trait by respond it is also classical conditioning it is a given trait that makes humans more unique than any other species of animals plants or an the theory o the Big Bang is a spontaneous person and has expanded ev we do not know that m
Ryan Reply
behaviors are most successful in treating what?
Cody Reply
mental health disorders
Please guys am about to begin my project, I'd love suggestions on topics I can possibly take up.
Anigwe Reply
What are your guide lines
Hi could anyone discuss self serving bias?
vishal Reply
what is self serving bias?
if you achieve something you are willing to take credit for that. If you don't achieve,you simply say it is because of external factors
I think simple and best example would be if we score good marks we say "I worked hard".If we don't get good marks we say "teacher didn't teach the lesson well".
is it universally applicable?
kindly explain how
If I'm not wrong, universally applicable means something which applies to everyone in general. So if you mean to ask whether everyone has a self serving bias, then the answer is No. Because self defeating bias, which is exactly opposite of self serving bias also exists.
An individual can have either of these two biases
what does attribution means?
Vamsi Reply
I have the same doubt... As we can search for meaning... But not able to understand the concept
atttibution is a social cognitive function that allows us to give, to attribute, feelings of thoughts to somebody that's not ourself. for example I can say that my friend is feeling sad today for some reasons because I can consider that my friend is different than me. does it help ?
Thank you Perle.Can I get another example?
imagine you are walking in the street and you see someone smiling. you can think "oh this person looks happy"
basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts
Thank you so much.
wait wait. my last example is wrong. seeing someone smiling and think they're happy is the theory of mind, not attribution
Is this definition correct "basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts."
yup ☺
but social cognitive functions are tricky. theory of mind and attribution are quite close !
Then can you please give me another example.
two examples : someone always talks during a class, while others listen to the professor. the intern attribution that you can think of is : this person doesn't like school
now this time, all students talk during a class. the external attribution that you can think of is : the class is boring
attribution is nothing but just the process by which we human explain our behaviour
like when I get good marks..i will attribute this to my performance and study
Hi Perle could you help me with one question
Is Self serving bias universal in attribution process?
self serving bias is like the tendency to perceive ourselves in very righteous manner
it's more on focussing on the need to maintain high self esteem
the basics are clear I needed to know more on the universal applicability about the SSB (self serving bias)
vishal yup thats a good idea ...
please what arw the two main ways of controlling behaviour?
Gifty Reply
patience and meditation
any one ,what is bio psychological model
Bio psychological model means bio means body and psychological means mind so bio psychological model is studies mind and body relationships
daily prayers and daily affirmations and daily excercise
and what is health belief model?
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Civis project - uprm. OpenStax CNX. Nov 20, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11359/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Civis project - uprm' conversation and receive update notifications?