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However, distributed teams introduce several UX challenges. Requirements developed in the silo of a remote team tend to focus on the requirements and business rules as expressed in that environment. For example, UC Berkeley might tend toward defining the business rules for the Gradebook based upon our campus policies rather than doing the extra work required to generalize across a wide range of institutions and global cultures. This behavior makes good local sense since as institutions we are driven by enlightened self-interest and need to ensure that we meet the needs of our local users with our local resources. However, producing a tool that only creates interactions based on the primacy of UC Berkeley’s business rules often effectively lowers the ability for other schools to leverage the tools and increases the total cost of adoption.

Another UX challenge is that working in tool silos makes it difficult to create a coherent, “holistic” environment for the end-user. Many user goals are based on work flows that cut across tool sets. This has been an oft-cited usability problem within Sakai. Users don’t think within the same categories and silos as the development teams work.

A code-centric culture

Open source software has historically been developed for and by developers. It is a meritocracy where individuals gain respect through their direct contributions to the end product. This creates an intrinsic reward system for the developers whereby respect and privileges are accorded to those who do things like “play well with others,” provide good feedback and assistance, but most importantly contribute good, solid, workable code.

UI Designers generally don’t produce code. UI Designer Rashmi Sinha talks about this issue in her blog ,

“…The problem of currency: In any system people exchange goods and services using some type of currency. The currency could be any arbitrary thing - it could be fish, cows, or massages. In the open source world, it happens to be code. The problem is that usability professionals generally do not write code.”

While quite successful for projects such as Linux and Apache, this is problematic for end-user applications that are used by the faculty and students in higher ed to support their daily scholarly, teaching, and learning activities. Developers can no longer design for themselves; they have to design for users whose goals are nothing like their own (a good read on this is Alan Cooper’s book, “ The Inmates are running the Asylum “). Developers need UI Designers and Instructional designers to help them translate instructional, scholarly goals into specifications and prototypes. However, in an environment where code is king, what rewards are available for individuals with these other critical skills to participate? Do we even have the right ecosystem in which for them to engage them in the first place?

The right people for the right job

As IT managers, we are probably the first to advocate for the right tool for the right job. However, we continually seem to hire a relative monoculture of IT professionals, thinking that if we just add another programmer all our problems will be solved! After talking with many IT managers across higher ed, it appears that UI design (whether it be User Research, Interaction Design, Visual Design, or Information Architecture) is rarely a formal part of their cycle or designers a regular part of the team. If UI Designers are part of the team, they are often so sparse a resource as to absolutely ensure that they won’t have enough time to get engaged early enough or long enough. This means that the few teams that are able to contribute UI designers to an open source effort, have a hard time being impactful. This is made worse by the fact that designers are often embedded in distributed teams and not looking across the product, inhibiting a holistic user-centered approach.

Questions & Answers

Black market what is the meaning
Bless Reply
where there is illegal transactions of goods or services. where there illegal goods or services are sold.
Scarcity is the major problem of any economy which is the limited resources an economy has in order to produce its country's unlimited wants/needs. Therefore, scarcity is the key term beyond the study of Economics.
Bature Reply
what is supply
Rahul Reply
Like the demand, the supply demonstrates the quantities that will be  sold at a certain price. But unlike the demand, the supply relationship  shows an upward slope. This means that the higher the price, the higher the  quantity supplied.  Producers supply more at a higher
or we can say that By supply we mean various quantatirs of a commodity which a producer will offer for sale at different possible prices over a given period of time
What is scarcity?
Jubille Reply
having unlimited needs and wants in a world of limited resources
what are the indicator of over population
Accorobatic Reply
Inefficiency of natural resources
Low PCI .
resources are limited and wants are unlimited
limited resources
what product market?
Gayflor Reply
explain demand
Bless Reply
what is economics
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work.
Pls what is national income?
demand is the number of buyers. as the price of goods is increase, the buyers will not consider to buy the goods, so the demand will decreases
National Income is the aggregate monetary value of all final goods and services produced in an economy in an year .
Why pecularities of land has no economic significance, What the economic bad, effictive demand?
Demand is a quantity of goods that a consumer is willing to buy at different prices over a given period of time
Define law of demand
what is deadweightloss
francis Reply
deadweight loss is the allocative inefficiency.... when the equilibrium for good or services is not achived.
hii too
how are you all?
I am here been sick but here
may you get well soon Amanda
What are the implications of classical Economics?
What are the implications of classical Economics school of thought?
Dead weight loss is an inefficient allocation of resources, especially through taxation or restrictions.
Classical Economics had an influenced by ancient economic principle and theory.
hello please what is localization of industry
Bless Reply
price is tantalisingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit Reply
Price is tantalizingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
what is scarcity
Sharkdanny Reply
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.
what is meant by an abnormal demand curve?
Samuel Reply
what is microeconomics
Berun Reply
micronomics can be define as that part of Economics that deals with small scale business. e.g. House hold stuff
Micro economics is the study of individuals, households and firms' behavior un decision making and allocation of resources
what is underemployment
Xornam Reply
It is the situation where the available resources are not used to it optimum
state the law of diminishing returns
Bless, the law of diminishing returns state that one point, adding a single worker will result in a decrease of production.
it is a situation where by people are employ but work under their potential
David please go into details kk
Akua pls when you say people alone? what about facilities?
Definition of underemployment. 1 : the condition in which people in a labor force are employed at less than full-time or regular jobs or at jobs inadequate with respect to their training or economic needs
OK that is good
I am new here
what does law of demand says?
with a diagram explain fairy elastic demand
comprehensive answer for public finance is the money that a government has available to spend from taxes and borrowing.
wilflay Reply
what then comprises of public opinion
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The impact of open source software on education. OpenStax CNX. Mar 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10431/1.7
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