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However, distributed teams introduce several UX challenges. Requirements developed in the silo of a remote team tend to focus on the requirements and business rules as expressed in that environment. For example, UC Berkeley might tend toward defining the business rules for the Gradebook based upon our campus policies rather than doing the extra work required to generalize across a wide range of institutions and global cultures. This behavior makes good local sense since as institutions we are driven by enlightened self-interest and need to ensure that we meet the needs of our local users with our local resources. However, producing a tool that only creates interactions based on the primacy of UC Berkeley’s business rules often effectively lowers the ability for other schools to leverage the tools and increases the total cost of adoption.

Another UX challenge is that working in tool silos makes it difficult to create a coherent, “holistic” environment for the end-user. Many user goals are based on work flows that cut across tool sets. This has been an oft-cited usability problem within Sakai. Users don’t think within the same categories and silos as the development teams work.

A code-centric culture

Open source software has historically been developed for and by developers. It is a meritocracy where individuals gain respect through their direct contributions to the end product. This creates an intrinsic reward system for the developers whereby respect and privileges are accorded to those who do things like “play well with others,” provide good feedback and assistance, but most importantly contribute good, solid, workable code.

UI Designers generally don’t produce code. UI Designer Rashmi Sinha talks about this issue in her blog ,

“…The problem of currency: In any system people exchange goods and services using some type of currency. The currency could be any arbitrary thing - it could be fish, cows, or massages. In the open source world, it happens to be code. The problem is that usability professionals generally do not write code.”

While quite successful for projects such as Linux and Apache, this is problematic for end-user applications that are used by the faculty and students in higher ed to support their daily scholarly, teaching, and learning activities. Developers can no longer design for themselves; they have to design for users whose goals are nothing like their own (a good read on this is Alan Cooper’s book, “ The Inmates are running the Asylum “). Developers need UI Designers and Instructional designers to help them translate instructional, scholarly goals into specifications and prototypes. However, in an environment where code is king, what rewards are available for individuals with these other critical skills to participate? Do we even have the right ecosystem in which for them to engage them in the first place?

The right people for the right job

As IT managers, we are probably the first to advocate for the right tool for the right job. However, we continually seem to hire a relative monoculture of IT professionals, thinking that if we just add another programmer all our problems will be solved! After talking with many IT managers across higher ed, it appears that UI design (whether it be User Research, Interaction Design, Visual Design, or Information Architecture) is rarely a formal part of their cycle or designers a regular part of the team. If UI Designers are part of the team, they are often so sparse a resource as to absolutely ensure that they won’t have enough time to get engaged early enough or long enough. This means that the few teams that are able to contribute UI designers to an open source effort, have a hard time being impactful. This is made worse by the fact that designers are often embedded in distributed teams and not looking across the product, inhibiting a holistic user-centered approach.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The impact of open source software on education. OpenStax CNX. Mar 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10431/1.7
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