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Natural sciences

Grade 9

Life processes: healthy life

Module 5

Breathing and health

Air pollution and too much dust and smoke can cause damage to lungs by preventing the cleansing system of the air passages from operating effectively.

When the lung tissue is damaged, oxygen cannot be transferred effectively to the blood, and the heart has to exert itself to supply enough oxygenated blood to all the cells. This leads to health problems and heart disease.

Smoke particles continuously bombard the sensitive lung tissue and this tissue eventually tries to protect itself by growing extra cell layers to act as a shield, which is how CANCER develops!

Respiratory diseases


  • Occurs in people who smoke – the cilia are paralysed and build-up of phlegm occurs
  • Continuous coughing begins to damage blood capillaries
  • Gas exchange is hampered – the affected person suffers from a lack of oxygen
  • Death may result.


  • Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles result from bacterial infections
  • Much mucus or phlegm is formed – the sufferer coughs continuously
  • Smoking exacerbates the symptoms and recovery is slower.


  • An allergic reaction to certain substances
  • The sufferer struggles to breathe
  • Medication is essential for the dilation of the bronchial tubes
  • It is dangerous to use another person’s respirator / breathing apparatus. Different respirators have different kinds of chemical substances; therefore it is important to keep to the doctor’s prescription.


  • Caused by a bacterial infection, which first affects the lungs
  • The sufferer coughs continuously, loses weight, loses his or her appetite, has night sweats, is out of breath and coughs up blood.
  • It is infectious and bacteria are spread by means of the tiny particles of phlegm that are dispersed during coughing.
  • It is completely treatable at the nearest clinic – sufferers merely have to continue the treatment over the extended period for which this might be required.
  • It is a problem among inhabitants of the Cape Flats and in poor communities.
  • All babies should be vaccinated with the BCG vaccine.
  • Questions: LUNG DISORDERS:

1. Why do people with asthma suffer from lack of breath?

2. Why do TB sufferers cough up blood?

3. Why does TB present a problem in poor communities?

4. Why should you not use cough suppressants when you suffer from bronchitis?

5. How does a person suffering from emphysema lose the function of the cilia?


  • You can choke when you swallow quickly or when you laugh, talk or cough while swallowing. The epiglottis (a cartilage “lid”), which should close the windpipe temporarily when food has to pass over this opening to the gullet, does not close fast enough and food inadvertedly goes down the windpipe or trachea.
  • A person who is choking usually tries to get out of the way to hide his discomfort. Follow such a person and find out whether he or she is all right. If they are able to produce a sound, the choking is not too serious and a good fit of coughing will clear the windpipe. However, if the windpipe is blocked, brain damage will occur within 4 to 5 minutes and it is imperative to help such a person.


  • Stand behind the sufferer, with your arms around his or her waist.
  • Clench one hand into a fist and place the other hand over it, just above the navel and below the ribcage.
  • Apply a sharp upward movement repeatedly.
  • Small children could be laid face down over the knee.

Demonstrate the Heimlich Manoeuvre to your family,without applying pressure.

You may be able to save a life if you learn to do the Heimlich Manoeuvre correctly. Consider joining your school’s First Aid team and following a course in first aid .

Class activity: POSTER on smoking

  • Collect warnings from cigarette packets and old magazines – remember that advertising smoking is prohibited!
  • Find out about laws concerning smoking – what are the latest developments?
  • Create a poster to feature in a consciousness-raising campaign. Put it up outside your classroom, or arrange an exhibition for your school.


  • Each cigarette shortens the smoker’s life by 5,5 minutes – 20 per day therefore causes a loss of six months for every six years of smoking.
  • A cigarette contains 4 000 different chemicals. Some of them are deadly toxins, e.g. arsenic, carbon monoxide, nicotine and cyanide!
  • Half a gram of nicotine can kill an adult within minutes!

if a smoker stops smoking:

  • the capacity for taste and smell will improve within two days
  • the morning cough will disappear within two weeks
  • the risk of heart disease will be halved within one year

the price shock:

  • At almost R13 per packet of 20, a packet of cigarettes per day costs R 390 per month. At this rate, a smoker had to pay R4 680 for his smoking habit in 2004!

Assessment: POSTER

Could you project an effective health warning through sound planning (1.1) and the execution of the investigation (1.2)?

LO 1.1; LO 1.2


Learning Outcomes 1 : Scientific Investigation

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 plans investigations;

  • conducts investigations and collects data;



1. Bronchi close up.

2. Blood capillaries rupture because of bouts of coughing.

3. Neglect, unhealthy living conditions, poor education, crowded living conditions.

4. Phlegm must be coughed up.

5. Too much phlegm.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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