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Natural sciences

Grade 9

Life processes: healthy life

Module 5

Breathing and health

Air pollution and too much dust and smoke can cause damage to lungs by preventing the cleansing system of the air passages from operating effectively.

When the lung tissue is damaged, oxygen cannot be transferred effectively to the blood, and the heart has to exert itself to supply enough oxygenated blood to all the cells. This leads to health problems and heart disease.

Smoke particles continuously bombard the sensitive lung tissue and this tissue eventually tries to protect itself by growing extra cell layers to act as a shield, which is how CANCER develops!

Respiratory diseases

Emphysema:

  • Occurs in people who smoke – the cilia are paralysed and build-up of phlegm occurs
  • Continuous coughing begins to damage blood capillaries
  • Gas exchange is hampered – the affected person suffers from a lack of oxygen
  • Death may result.

Bronchitis:

  • Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles result from bacterial infections
  • Much mucus or phlegm is formed – the sufferer coughs continuously
  • Smoking exacerbates the symptoms and recovery is slower.

Asthma:

  • An allergic reaction to certain substances
  • The sufferer struggles to breathe
  • Medication is essential for the dilation of the bronchial tubes
  • It is dangerous to use another person’s respirator / breathing apparatus. Different respirators have different kinds of chemical substances; therefore it is important to keep to the doctor’s prescription.

Tuberculosis:

  • Caused by a bacterial infection, which first affects the lungs
  • The sufferer coughs continuously, loses weight, loses his or her appetite, has night sweats, is out of breath and coughs up blood.
  • It is infectious and bacteria are spread by means of the tiny particles of phlegm that are dispersed during coughing.
  • It is completely treatable at the nearest clinic – sufferers merely have to continue the treatment over the extended period for which this might be required.
  • It is a problem among inhabitants of the Cape Flats and in poor communities.
  • All babies should be vaccinated with the BCG vaccine.
  • Questions: LUNG DISORDERS:

1. Why do people with asthma suffer from lack of breath?

2. Why do TB sufferers cough up blood?

3. Why does TB present a problem in poor communities?

4. Why should you not use cough suppressants when you suffer from bronchitis?

5. How does a person suffering from emphysema lose the function of the cilia?

HAVE YOU EVER HAD A PROBLEM WITH CHOKING?

  • You can choke when you swallow quickly or when you laugh, talk or cough while swallowing. The epiglottis (a cartilage “lid”), which should close the windpipe temporarily when food has to pass over this opening to the gullet, does not close fast enough and food inadvertedly goes down the windpipe or trachea.
  • A person who is choking usually tries to get out of the way to hide his discomfort. Follow such a person and find out whether he or she is all right. If they are able to produce a sound, the choking is not too serious and a good fit of coughing will clear the windpipe. However, if the windpipe is blocked, brain damage will occur within 4 to 5 minutes and it is imperative to help such a person.

Doing the HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE!

  • Stand behind the sufferer, with your arms around his or her waist.
  • Clench one hand into a fist and place the other hand over it, just above the navel and below the ribcage.
  • Apply a sharp upward movement repeatedly.
  • Small children could be laid face down over the knee.

Demonstrate the Heimlich Manoeuvre to your family,without applying pressure.

You may be able to save a life if you learn to do the Heimlich Manoeuvre correctly. Consider joining your school’s First Aid team and following a course in first aid .

Class activity: POSTER on smoking

  • Collect warnings from cigarette packets and old magazines – remember that advertising smoking is prohibited!
  • Find out about laws concerning smoking – what are the latest developments?
  • Create a poster to feature in a consciousness-raising campaign. Put it up outside your classroom, or arrange an exhibition for your school.

DO YOU KNOW THIS?

  • Each cigarette shortens the smoker’s life by 5,5 minutes – 20 per day therefore causes a loss of six months for every six years of smoking.
  • A cigarette contains 4 000 different chemicals. Some of them are deadly toxins, e.g. arsenic, carbon monoxide, nicotine and cyanide!
  • Half a gram of nicotine can kill an adult within minutes!

if a smoker stops smoking:

  • the capacity for taste and smell will improve within two days
  • the morning cough will disappear within two weeks
  • the risk of heart disease will be halved within one year

the price shock:

  • At almost R13 per packet of 20, a packet of cigarettes per day costs R 390 per month. At this rate, a smoker had to pay R4 680 for his smoking habit in 2004!

Assessment: POSTER

Could you project an effective health warning through sound planning (1.1) and the execution of the investigation (1.2)?

LO 1.1; LO 1.2

Assessment

Learning Outcomes 1 : Scientific Investigation

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 plans investigations;

  • conducts investigations and collects data;

Memorandum

QUESTIONS; PULMONARY DISEASES:

1. Bronchi close up.

2. Blood capillaries rupture because of bouts of coughing.

3. Neglect, unhealthy living conditions, poor education, crowded living conditions.

4. Phlegm must be coughed up.

5. Too much phlegm.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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