<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Results of our analysis of the literature are portrayed in Table 1. As noted there, within the time period explored, mention of cohorts was first found in 1987, but significant mention of them in the literature we reviewed was not found until 1992. The frequency with which cohorts were addressed increased especially between the late 1990s through 2004 after which a decline was witnessed in 2005 (which may be a function of delay in data entry in some of the data bases we explored). Although certainly a limited gauge of cohort use, these data nonetheless suggest that interest in cohorts within the field has increased over the past twenty years.

Existing survey data about cohort use, as well as our analysis of the literature, lead to two observations. First, cohorts have indeed become widespread in doctoral programs and if our analysis of the literature is any indication, interest in them, if not their use has grown steadily in the past two decades. Therefore, it would appear that this particular programmatic structure or field logic has achieved at least a moderate level of penetration for doctoral programs in a relatively short amount of time. However, cohorts have yet to become an exclusive field logic for educational leadership doctoral programs. This lack of absolute homogeneity in reported use highlights the continuous, rather than the dichotomous, nature of institutionalization (Krasner, 1988), as well as the possibility for alternative structures and field logics to coexist within the same organizational field (Greenwood&Hinings, 1996). Still, the apparent growth in the use of cohorts over the past several years requires exploration of reasons for their increase. This question is addressed later in our analysis of the mechanisms of isomorphic change.

Second, results reported in extant research literature on cohorts raise questions about whether differences exist among different types of higher education institutions in the use of cohorts. Although McCarthy and Kuh (1997) reported no difference in use between types of institutions, Barnett et al. (2000) suggest that differences do exist, with larger, research oriented institutions using cohorts more frequently than other types of institutions. Whether these conflicting results are a function of different data collection times and procedures, the use of different typologies to categorize institutions, or differences in who responded to the two surveys cannot be discerned from the information provided. More research is required about cohort use by different types of institutions. As noted later, the results of such research would contribute in important ways to the understanding of mimetic pressures within the field.

Isomorphic Mechanisms

As noted earlier, three forms of isomorphic pressure lead to increasing levels of homogeneity in structures and field logics employed by organizations to gain legitimacy in a field. Each of these is explored below with reference to cohort use.

Coercion. Coercive processes require either explicit or implicit influence from an agent on an organization to comply with its wish for a particular organizational structure. As noted earlier, this influence may actually be exercised or organizational personnel may anticipate becoming subjects of future coercion, if they fail to comply with coercive pressures. In addition, agents of coercion can act either from a basis of authority (to which the target organization acquiesces) or by using coercive power, threatening sanctions and other forms of punishment for failure to comply.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, The handbook of doctoral programs: issues and challenges. OpenStax CNX. Dec 10, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10427/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'The handbook of doctoral programs: issues and challenges' conversation and receive update notifications?