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In the case of cohort use, only one condition of the coercive mechanism appears to apply. This condition is the general belief among educational leadership faculty that failure to reform preparation programs may result in actions by members of the professional field to weaken higher education’s role as the major provider of these programs. Over the past few years national attention on public education in general, and school leaders in particular, has helped form a trenchant perception of university preparation programs. Newspaper accounts such as those in Education Week, and the more widely read New York Times and USA Today, have covered broad leadership issues but have also focused on leadership preparation. For the most part these articles have been highly critical of traditional university preparation programs and represent, in large measure, current popular opinion of university-based educational leadership preparation (Guthrie&Sanders, 2001; Young&Petersen, 2002; Petersen, 1999). More recently, Levine’s call for discontinuance of EdD programs in favor of master’s programs similar to the M.B.A. highlights anew the range of threats that have surfaced to stimulate a variety of reforms, including calls for redefining the traditional EdD (Shulman, et al., 2005).This unyielding scrutiny has leadership preparation programs in a precarious position. Decreased institutional support, stronger state licensure mandates, federal and government sponsored initiatives designed to prepare school leaders outside of the university setting, coupled with alternative licensure for school administrators are evidence of external groups’dissatisfaction with the performance of university programs in preparing educational leaders:

Over the past few years, the national attention focused on educational leadership has escalated. Dewitt-Wallace Readers Digest Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, the Annenberg Foundation, the Broad Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the National Governors Association, Educational Officials, and the leaders of several national corporations, among others, have all expressed interest in the training and preparation of school leaders. Their focus on this issue has brought with it millions of dollars in research and program funding…For the most part, [they are] critical of traditional university preparation of school and school system leaders and/or supportive of alternative preparation programs. (Young&Petersen, 2002, p.1).

Other than these generalized threats about creating alternatives to university leadership preparation programs, we are unaware of any external agent within the organizational field (state departments, accreditation associations, professional associations, practitioners, etc.) that is requiring, either by virtue of authority or threat of sanctions, the use of cohort structures to deliver leadership preparation programs. Therefore, the condition of anticipated coercion that does obtain in this instance acts not in a specific way but generally. University programs do not anticipate that failure to reform preparation programs will result in the imposition of a cohort structure by external agents or the application of specific sanctions. Rather, faculty appear to share a diffuse understanding that reform is indeed necessary if higher education is to maintain it’s predominate role in leadership preparation. Additional evidence of this diffuse threat are English’s (2006) concerns about the routinization and standardization of preparation programs as a consequence of the application of ELCC and NCATE standards.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The handbook of doctoral programs: issues and challenges. OpenStax CNX. Dec 10, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10427/1.3
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